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FSU CCJ 2020 - Criminal Justice Perspectives

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Travis'(Chapter(1(Criminal(Justice(Perspectives(• Sociologists(often(speak(of(the(purposes(of(social(institutions(as(“functions.”(o Functions:(The(goals(served(by(a(social(instit u tion.( Ex:(Schools(serve(the(functions(of(education(• Manifest(Functions:(The(stated(purposes(of(the(institution.(o Ex:(Schools(serve(the(manifest(function(of(education(through(teaching(students(various(academic(subjects.((• Latent(Functions:(The(unstated(or(hidden(g oa ls.((o Ex:(providing(child(care(and(controlling(the(workforce(by(otherwise(occupying(millions(of(young(people.((• Social(Control:(The(label(given(to(the(processes(and(structures(that(seek(to(limit(rule'breaking(behavior,(or(deviance.((o Most(discussions(of(social(control(attempt(to(classify(the(different(means(by(which(conformity(is(achieved.((• Types(of(social(control:((o Formal(social(control:(( Includes(those(sanctions(applied(by(some(authorized(body(after(a(public(finding(of(fault.((o Informal(Social(Control:(( Refers(to(mechanisms(that(influence(behavior(without(the(need(for(public(finding(of(fault(or(the(use(of(group;(“authorized”(sanctions.((• Criminal(Justice(as(a(social(control:((o The(primary(function(of(criminal(justice(is(social(control.((o The(components:(police,(courts(and(corrections.(( Manifest(functions:(controlling(different(kinds(of(deviance(defined(as(crime.((• Most(social(control(works(through(informal(mechanisms.((o Criminal-Justice'(The(formal(institution(designed(to(respond(to(deviance(defined(as(crime.(( Crime(control(is(the(primary(purpose(of(the(criminal(justice(system,(but(also(serves(as(other(latent(functions.((• In(general,(the(criminal(justice(process(is(a(formal(social(control(mechanism(• The(basic(social(control(took(available(to(agents(of(the(criminal(justice(process(is(“group'authorized”(punishment.((o Community(Justice:(An(approach(to(social(control(as(it(sees(the(criminal(process(as(an(integral(part(of(other(community(institutions.(( “Crime(is(a(symptom(of(problems(in(communities(• The(“Comprehensive(Communities(Program”'(1994.((o Based(on(the(principles(that(communities(must(take(a(leadership(role(in(combating(crime(and(violence((o Perspectives(on(Criminal(Justice( Criminal(Justice(has(frequently(been(accused(of(being(“atheoretical”(or(lacking(a(unifying(perspective(or(set(of(perspectives(in(which(operations(of(criminal(justice(agents(can(be(understood.((• They(say(criminal(justice(has(not(yet(achieved(theoretical(integrity(and(coherence.((o Criminal(Justice(Theory:(( Theory:(A(logical(explanation(of(something.((• A(statement(about(how(things(work(to(produce(an(outcome.((o Problem:(Finding(or(identifying(the(criminal(justice(theory(is(the(complexity(of(the(subject.((o Approaches(to(study(criminal(justice:( Disciplinary(• Each(discipline(contains(as(least(an(implicit(theory(of(what(“causes”(or(explains(criminal(justice.((• A(branch(of(study(or(learning(• Multidisciplinary(• Interdisciplinary(( Comparison(• Establish(standards(to(which(actual(practices(of(justice(agencies(or(an(entire(justice(system(are(compared.((o Ex:(Suggested(by(packer,(through(the(application(of(“ideal(types”(of(justice(systems( Crime(control(model'(operate(on(a(presumption(of(guilt.( Due(Process(model:(vigorously(protects(human(rights.(( Process(• Focuses(on(case(processing.(o Focus’s(less(on(the(outcome(and(more(on(how(the(system(“runs.”(( Best(Ex:(the(American(Bar(Foundation(( Thematic(• Compares(different(points(or(aspects(of(the(justice(process(with(each(other.((o Based(on(the(various(decisions(that(comprise(the(justice(system.(( The(focus(is(on(the(characteristics(of(the(decision.(( Systems(analyses(of(criminal(justice.((• Views(the(criminal(justice(process(as(a(whole(comprising(the(separate,(but(interrelated,(parts(of(law(enforcement,(courts(and(corrections.((o These(work(together(to(achieve(the(goal(of(crime(control(in(our(society.((o “The(big(picture”'(being(more(concerned(with(how(their(units(of(study(fit(into(a(larger(environment.(( “System”'(a(set(or(collection(of(interrelated(parts(working(together(to(achieve(a(common(goal.((o Choosing(an(approach:(The(book(relies(on(the( systems- appr oach(because(of(its(flexibility.((***( Other(approaches(can(be(too(restrictive.((• Systems(approach(is(broad(enough(to(allow(the(analyst(to(employ(any((or(all)(of(the(other(perspectives(within(it.(Flexible(enough(to(include(many(different(disciplinary(backgrounds.((o Forces(the(analyst(to(remember(that(many(factors(influence(each(decision.((o Provides(a(“picture(window”(through(which(to(view(criminal(justice.(( Systems(theory(and(the(systems(approach:((• Systems(cannot(be(beaten(because(it(reacts(and(adapts(to(maintain(normal(functioning.(( The(System(of(Criminal(Justice:(• Systems(theory(is(sensitive(to(the(interdependency(of(the(part(of(the(entire(process.((o Walker((1992)(observed(that(the(systems(perspective(is(the(dominant(scientific(paradigm(of(criminal(justice.((o Paradigm(for(understanding(criminal(justice:(( Criminal(Justice(is(complex,(involving(much(more(than(law(enforcement( The(role(of(the(police,(as(a(result,(is(also(very(complex,(involving(more(than(crime(control.(( The(administration(of(justice(is(largely(discretionary( Discretionary(decisions(are(not(well(controll ed( by(law(or(formal(rules.(( The(agencies(of(criminal(justice(are(interrelated(and(form(a(system.((o Types(of(Systems:(( For(our(purposes,(we(need(to(only(differentiate(from(“open”(and(“closed”(systems.((• Open(Systems:(o Sensitive(to(its(environment.((• Closed(Systems:(Often(self(contained(( General(systems(theory(includes(concepts(of(the(whole(system,(of(the(total(system(and(of(subsystems.(• The(whole(system(comprises(everything.((• Each(system(is(composed(of(various(parts(o Subsystems:(A(full(system(that(is(a(component(of(a(larger(system.((o The(nonsystem(of(Criminal(Justice:(( Robin((1984)(classified(criticisms(of(the(systems(approach(to(criminal(justice(into(four(categories(• Jurisdictional(problems(• Differences(in(roles(and(goals(• Differenced(in(personnel(• Substantive(issues((o Criminal(justice(is(not(a(“model”(system.(( Crime(control(is(a(manifest(function(or(goal(of(each(agency.((• The(criminal(Justice(process(is(an(OPEN(SYSTEM.((


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