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FSU BSC 2086 - Lesson 10: Blood Vessel Dynamics

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AP2: EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDELesson 10: Blood Vessel DynamicsPressure and Resistance:• Circulatory Pressure• ∆P = difference in pressure across the systemic circuit (about 100 mm Hg)• Circulatory pressure must overcome total peripheral resistance (R) • R of entire cardiovascular system• Total Peripheral Resistance• Vascular resistance• Blood viscosity• Turbulence(Dialated blood vessel- blood inside not touching wall receives less friction. Constricted blood vessel- more blood brushes wall to increase resistance)(Go over vocab. Small changes in r have big effects on R as r increases R decreases)• An Overview of Cardiovascular Pressures• Vessel diameters• Total cross-sectional areas• Pressures• Velocity of blood flowSlide 11Note: the greatest cross-sectional area is in the capillariesSlide 12 Note: the largest drop in BP occurs at the arterioles = resistance vessels• Arterial Blood Pressure• Systolic pressure• Peak arterial pressure during ventricular systole• Diastolic pressure• Minimum arterial pressure during diastole• Why doesn’t the diastolic pressure drop to zero when the heart is relaxes at the end of diastole?• Because of elastic arteries- elastic fibers- stretch and recoil• Pulse pressure • Difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure• Mean arterial pressure (MAP)- know this formula• MAP = diastolic pressure + 1/3 pulse pressure• i.e. BP 120/90• MAP = 90 + 1/3(120-90) = 100 mmHg• Abnormal Blood Pressure- hyper/hypotension• Normal = 120/80 (systolic pressure/diastolic presure)• Hypertension - Abnormally high blood pressure• Greater than 140/90• Hypotension - Abnormally low blood pressure• Less common than hypertension, mostly caused by overly aggressive drugtreatment of hypertension• Elastic Rebound- helps normalize BP• Arterial walls• Stretch during systole • Rebound (recoil to original shape) during diastole • Keep blood moving during diastole• Pressures in Small Arteries and Arterioles• Pressure and distance• MAP and pulse pressure decrease with distance from heart • Blood pressure decreases with friction• Pulse pressure decreases due to elastic rebound• By the time blood reaches precapillary sphincter, no pressure fluctuations remainSlide 18: Arterioles- greatest drop in pressure• Venous Pressure and Venous Return• Determines the amount of blood arriving at right atrium each minute• Low effective pressure in venous system• Low venous resistance is assisted by:1. Muscular compression of peripheral veins• Compression by skeletal muscles pushes blood toward heart (one-way valves) 2. The respiratory pump - Thoracic cavity action • Inhaling decreases thoracic pressure- pulls air into lungs and blood into inferior vena cava- less pressure on veins• Exhaling raises thoracic pressure- pushes venous blood into r. atrium- decrease in volume- not backwards• Capillary Pressures and Capillary Exchange• Vital to homeostasis• Moves materials across capillary walls by:• Diffusion• Filtration- fenestrated capillaries• Reabsorption• Diffusion - Movement of ions or molecules• From high concentration to lower concentration along the concentration gradient • Does not require excess energy• Diffusion Routes1. Water, ions, and small molecules such as glucose• Diffuse between adjacent endothelial cells• Or through fenestrated capillaries2. Some ions (Na, K, Ca2, Cl)• Diffuse through channels in plasma membranes3. Large, water-soluble compounds• Pass through fenestrated capillaries4. Lipids and lipid-soluble materials such as O2 and CO2• Diffuse through endothelial plasma membranes5. Plasma proteins• Cross endothelial lining in sinusoids- i.e. sinusoidal capillaries in liver• Filtration • Driven by hydrostatic pressure- from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure• Water and small solutes forced through capillary wall• Leaves larger solutes in bloodstream• Reabsorption • The result of osmotic pressure (OP)• Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)• Also referred to as oncotic pressure• Caused by suspended blood proteins that are too large to cross capillary walls• Equals pressure required to prevent osmosis• Draws fluid back into the capillaries• Interplay between Filtration and Reabsorption1. Ensures that plasma and interstitial fluid are in constant communication and mutual exchange2. Accelerates distribution of:• Nutrients, hormones, and dissolved gases throughout tissues3. Assists in the transport of:• Insoluble lipids and tissue proteins that cannot enter bloodstream by crossing capillary walls4. Has a flushing action that carries bacterial toxins and other chemical stimuli to:• Lymphatic tissues and organs responsible for providing immunity to disease• Interplay between Filtration and Reabsorption• Net hydrostatic pressure- dP between inside & outside of capillry• Forces water out of solution- out of capillary into interstitial fluid• Net osmotic pressure• Forces water into solution- from outside capillary to inside• Both control filtration and reabsorption through capillaries• Factors that Contribute to Net Hydrostatic Pressure 1. Capillary hydrostatic pressure (CHP)2. Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (IHP)• Net capillary hydrostatic pressure tends to push water and solutes:• Out of capillaries• Into interstitial fluid• Net Capillary Colloid Osmotic Pressure • Is the difference between:1. Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)2. Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (ICOP) • Pulls water and solutes:• Into a capillary• From interstitial fluid• Net Filtration Pressure (NFP)• The difference between:• Net hydrostatic pressure• Net osmotic pressure• NFP= Net hydrostatic pressure – Net osmotic pressureNFP = (CHP – IHP) – (BCOP – ICOP)Usually in normal conditions, the IHP & ICOP are equal to each other, so the equation can be simplified to NFP = (CHP-BCOP)- simplify for normal conditions• Capillary Exchange• At arterial end of capillary: NFP > 0- filtration occurs• Fluid moves out of capillary• Into interstitial fluid• At venous end of capillary: NFP < 0- reabsorption occurs• Fluid moves into capillary• Out of interstitial fluid• Transition point between filtration and reabsorption• Is closer to venous end than arterial end • Capillaries filter more than they reabsorb• Excess fluid enters lymphatic vessels•


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