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FSU BSC 2086 - Exam #4

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Exam #4 Review Topics Lesson 13: What are the five functions of the respiratory system? 1. Produces extensive gas exchange surface area between air and circulating blood2. Moves air to and from exchange surface of lungs3. Protects respiratory surfaces from outside environment4. Produces sound5. Participate in olfactory sense. What are the components of the respiratory system? Which parts are shared with the digestive system?Upper respiratory system: what is above the larynx. Lower respiratory system: what is below the larynx. The pharynx is shared by both respiratory system and digestive system.Which parts are in the upper respiratory system? Which parts are in the lower respiratory system? Upper respiratory system consists of: the pharynx and nasal cavityLower respiratory system consists of: trachea and bronchusWhat is the difference between the conducting portion and respiratory portion of the respiratory tract? The conducting portion goes from nasal cavity to terminal bronchioles. The respiratory portion is the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli. The alveoli are air-filled pockets within the lungs whereall the gas exchange takes place. What is the difference between the respiratory epithelium, respiratory mucosa, and the alveolar epithelium? What cell types are found in each of these structures? The respiratory epithelium is for gases to exchange efficiently. The alveoli walls are very thing and lined with this. The respiratory mucosa lines the conducting portion of the respiratory system, and it consists of an epithelial layer and a supportive areolar layers called the lamina propria. The alveolar epithelium is a very delicate simple squamous epithelium forming a single layer. It contains scattered and specialized cells and lines exchange surfaces of alveoli. What filtration mechanisms exist in the respiratory system? The respiratory defense system removes particles andpathogens, and consists of 4 filtration mechanisms:1. Mucous cells and mucous glands- produce mucus that bathes exposed surfaces2. Cilia- sweep debris trapped in mucus toward the pharynx (mucus escalator)3. Filtration in nasal cavity removes large particles4. Alveolar macrophages engulf small particles that reach lungsThe nasal hairs are actually the first particle filtration system. It warms and humidifies air entering nasal cavity. What is the function of the epiglottis? Where is it located and why is it important? The epiglottis folds back over the glottis during swallowing to prevent entry of food and liquids into the trachea. It is located above the thyroid cartilage. Where are the vocal folds located? How is sound produced by the vocal cord? Vocal folds are located in the larynx. Sound is produced when air passes through the glottis and vibrates the vocal folds. The vocal folds involved with sounds are known as vocal cords. Slender, short folds= high pitchThick, longer folds= lower pitchWhat is the trachealis muscle? Where is it located and how is it regulated? The trachealis muscle connects the ends of each tracheal cartilage. Contraction of the trachealis muscles reduces diameter; this is regulated by the sympathetic stimulation, which causes relaxation of the muscle. Why do objects that enter the trachea most often enter the right primary bronchus as oppose to the left primary bronchus? Most foreign objects enter the right primary bronchus because the right primary bronchus is larger in diameter than the left and descends at a steeper angle. What are the differences between the right and left lung? The right lung has 3 lobes, and the left lung has 2 lobes because the left lung has to compensate for the size of the heart.What is the difference between bronchitis, asthma, respiratory distresssyndrome, and pneumonia? What are the causes of each of these conditions? Bronchitis- is inflammation of the bronchial walls. This causes constriction, which makes breathing difficult. Asthma- is when excessive smooth muscle stimulation and bronchoconstriction causes bronchiole mucosa to form folds, which severely restricts airflow. Respiratory distress syndrome- is caused when pneumonocytes type II do not produce enough surfactant. This causes alveolar collapse and requires you to breathe in much harder to cause the alveoli to open. Pneumonia- is inflammation of the lobules. This causes fluid to leak into alveoli and constriction of respiratory bronchioles. This compromises the function of the respiratory membrane. How are the bronchioles structurally different than the bronchi? What is the significance of this difference? Bronchi (plural of bronchus) are tubes that branch off from the trachea into each lung. Bronchioles are smaller tubes that branch off from each bronchus. Also there are only two bronchi compared with the hundreds of bronchioles.What are the components of the respiratory membrane? The 3 layers of the respiratory membrane:1. Squamous epithelial cells lining the alveolus 2. Endothelial cells lining the adjacent capillary3. Fused basement membrane between the alveolar and endothelial cells.Why does diffusion of gases occur at the respiratory membrane?Diffusion of gases and gas exchange takes place at the respiratory membrane because of the thinness of the membrane.Why is a pulmonary embolism dangerous? A pulmonary embolism is caused by the blockage of pulmonaryvessels. This can permanently collapse alveoli. If this occurs in a major pulmonary vessel, it can cause excessive strain on right ventricle and cause congestive heart failure to occur. What are the pleural membranes? There are 2 pleural cavities. Each one holds a lung, and is linedwith a serous membrane. Each pleural cavity is lined with a serous membrane (the pleura).What is located between the membranes and why is that substance important?Pleural fluid is located between them and lubricates the space between the 2 leas. This prevents friction between the pleura, and “connects” the parietal pleura with the visceral pleura. Lesson 14: What is the difference between external and internal respiration? Whathappens in the two types of respiration?External respiration includes all processes involved with exchanging CO2 and O2 with the environment. Internal respiration is respiration at the cellular level. It involves the uptake of O2 and production of CO2 with individual cells. The mitochondria of cells use O2 and generate CO2.What happens to tissues if there is reduced or a complete lack of external respiration? Hypoxia- low


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