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UMass Amherst PSYCH 100 - Psych 100 notes

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Week 1 ● Handsome teacher- ● What were some of the behavioral observations you made during the Handsome Teacher video (list at least 3)○ There was covering of the mouth. For example, one of the first set of girls is almost covering her mouth with her hand while smiling in the very beginning.○ There was a lot of giggling. For example, both of the first set of girls were laughing and smiling constantly while he leaves. ○ There is also a lot of touching one another. For example, with the second set of girls, one girl is lightly hitting the other. She pulls the other girls hair too. ○ The second set of girls also are smiling and waving their hands, one girl is hitting other one lightly○ Thr fourth set of girls are laughing while holding each others arms and leaning towards each other; they also bow there head forawrd towards the desk while laughing○● What possible explanation did you come up with for each of the observations you listed above?○ The covering of the mouths with their hands can be used to not show their huge smiles off and hide their reactions from the teacher.○ The giggling may be an expression of nervousness, anxiousness, or excitement. ○ The touching each other may be a way of signaling to see validation in their excitement or to share their excitement with the other person. ■ the other person how excited they are or sharing the excitement with other person, or trying to validate their response○ Bowing forward while laughing- cannot hold their laughs in so attempt to hold it in○ Fixing their hand- to fix themselves up, maybe expressing insecurities● Pretty teacher- reacted bit different but can be because situation ● Empiricism- systematic operation of behavior (scientific method/data)- scientific method gives procedure to observe behvior while minimizing biases (try to be objective as possible)● We study Affect (noun) - expression of emotion, Behavior, and Cognition- people’s thoughts (cannot directly measure much like affect but in modern psychology have ways to measure them)● Multiple ways to do empirical studies (studies of people’s thoughts, feelings, and behvaiors). One way is experiments- specific type of study ● Experiment establish causality- meaning whether changes in a given variable causes changes in another variable (variables linked in cause relationship)● Variables examples- age, gender, culture● Independent and dependent variables... can have a lot of “maybes” (light and lightswitch example)● Comparison group ( ie : hot temperature in room will make people do bad in class- can test this hypothesis but need to compare with all variables same expect this one independent variable)● If split rooms by ladies and men, there is another variable there now. This is a Cofounding variable-some other variable then independent variable that is being manipulated (unintentionally)● Thus, Need to do randomly (only other variable is chance) - chance should balance out these other variables very well● Random assignment only way we have to determine what condition the participants will be in ● Experiments are only way to study behavior (good thing because some variables cannot be maniuplated like socieconomic status - cannot manipulate rich or not, depressed or not, married or not. etc)● Correlation- measure two variables and see if go together, if do, then have some sort of correlation ● Doing correlation easier, dont have to get people and do tests and all, all u can do is get some data and work with that ● Cannot says “cause” in correlation like being heavier causes low self esteem, can just say correlated ● Suggestive tho- if there is a correlation, there is a likely causation - but not established idea that is there is correlation, there is causation●● What was one plausible explanation you came up with for the positive correlation between pet ownership and life satisfaction?● Pets make people feel less lonely and can be comfort pets so that the more the pet ownership, the more the life satisfaction● Association backwards, better life sastiisfactions brings more pets into life ● Or third unmeasurable variable, ie children - chidren asking people for pets and having kids give people more life satisfaction ● Or health- more healthier people have energy to take care of pets● Money- Pets are expensive so maybe people with more money have more pets and the income is what causes better life satisfaction. ● Briefly explain why a control group is necessary for an experiment● In an experiment, you need a control or comparison group that receives a different valueof the independent variable (while all other variables remain the same) from the experimental group. A control group is necessary for an experiment because in order to test a hypothesis, you want to compare the data from the experimental group with the control group to conclude (with confidence) whether your hypothesis is true or false. Thecontrol group can help see the impact of the independent variable. Differences in the outcome between the experimental and control groups can be considered to be the impact or result of the independent variable’s manipulations. (Note: Random assignmentof participants to the experimental and control groups allows the groups to be considered comparable).-review slides -read book and or see if notes line up with book chapters and just do overview of book (command find during exam and if know general thing i should be fine) -start working on homework and actually get based on reading over slides Week 2PART 1● Recap this par● Nuerons- responsible for communication in nervous system ○ Dendrites are listening or receiving end of neuron (receiving signals) ○ Cell body has cellular mechanics○ Axon- sender○ Bundles of axon= nerves○ Myolin sheets- coating ○ Axonal branches○ Synapse is gap between ●● How does neuron work- ○ Charge in neuron (greater negative charge inside then outside balance maintained by neuron)○ Signal it sends is called action potential○ Localized Depolarization as the charges move across membrane○ Once reaches axon, neuron fires○ All or nothing, neuron cant fire longer or harder or lighter, just fires or does not ○ Can have rapid sequence of momentary firing ○ Terminal buttons (part of sending neuron) - not directly touch the receiving neuronExam: The electrical signal does not travel directly from the sending neuron to the receiving


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