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UMass Amherst PSYCH 100 - Psy 100 Exam 1 Study Guide Answers

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Exam 1 Study Guide*Disclaimer: We have not seen the exam, this study guide is only a representation of what we think could be on the exam. Be sure to study… *All lecture notes/demonstrations/videos *Feldman: Introduction- module 1,2,3 ; Psych research- Mod 4,5,6,56,57 ; Neuroscience- Mod 7,8,9 ; Nature v Nurture- Mod 35, 32 ; Development- Mod 36,37,38 *Hock: Gazzaniga Article ; Harlow article ; Rosenzweig article ; Piaget article Connect Quizzes 1,2,3Introduction 1. Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mind.a. It is the study of the conscious and unconscious mind2. Please match the following perspectives in Psychology to their explanation Neuroscience_D_ a. How does behavior/mental processes promote survival?Evolutionary_A_ b. How do unconscious conflicts/drives determine behavior?Behavior Genetics_F_ c. How does the brain/biology affect behavior?Psychodynamic_B_ d. How does information processing affect thoughts/behavior?Behavioral_G_ e. How do behavior/thinking vary across situations/cultures?Cognitive_C f. How much do genes vs. environment affect who we are?Socio-cultural_E_ g. How do our experiences and environment affect behavior?Research Methods1. __________ Hindsight Bias _____________: After you know the outcome of an event, you tend to believe that you would have predicted it.a. The professor led us to believe one thing about self-esteem in class, but it ended up being the exact opposite.i. We ended up trying to justify that we knew the answer when we really didn’t b. AFTER YOU KNOIW THE OUTCOME OF AN EVENT YOU TEND TO BELIEVE THAT YOU WOULD HAVE PREDICTED IT.2. People tend to be more confident than correct thinking they know more than they do is anexample of ______ Overconfidence _________________a. WE THINK YOU KNOW MORE THAN WE ACTUALLY DO!i. Politicians were confident that Donald Trump wasn’t going to be president.3. Where do hypotheses stem from?a. Dissatisfaction with other’s theoriesi. Harvard Pres. Said women are worse at science and math encouraging more women to do research into this.b. New questions from prior researchi. Research on sober and drunk studying1. This promoted questions about marijuanac. Personal observation and curiosityi. Why do babies cry when their parents leave?Methods of Inquiry1. What questions do you ask with Descriptive research? What is the nature of the phenomenon/behavior _______________________________________________________.Please define the following terms and answer the subsequent questions.2. Case study: _ Examine one person in depth to understand nature in general _____________________________________________________________a. List its limitations.i. Atypicality1. Doesn’t really represent a group/ too specificii. Limited generalizability1. You can really apply the findings of one person to the general population.b. List its strengths. i. able to study statistically abnormal phenomenon3. Observational research: ______ Researcher observes people and systematically records measurements of their behavior _a. List and define the two types of observational research:i. Unobtrusive1. Observing how kids play in a parkii. Participant observation1. Researchers join colt to see why they behave the way they doa. One researcher actually gets brainwashed into believingb. Lists its limitations: i. Lack of generalizability ii. Some behaviors are difficult to observe4. Survey Research: __Using questionnaires to ask lots of questions people to report their behavior a. Lists its strengths: i. Can sample a selection of population to reflect the whole population trendb. Lists its limitations: i. Underrepresented sample1. 1930’s people called every 20th person to see who they were going to vote for.a. Only rich people had phones at that time, so they were the only ones representedii. Orders of questions1. Do you give money to the homeless? YES or NO2. Do you help the less fortunate? YES or NO3. If you reverse the ordera. Statistically you get opposite results.iii. Question Wording 1. Mississippia. How long is itb. Is Mississippi 3,000 miles long or 400 miles longi. The question sort of pushes you to a certain answerc. How do you avoid an unrepresentative sample? You use random sampling5. What questions do you ask with Correlational Research? From knowing X can I predict Ya. When do we use it? i. When you want to understand relationships between tow things and be able to predict behaviors b. List its strengths: i. You can examine factors like race, sex and agec. Lists its limitations:i. Correlation doesn’t mean it proves cause ii. Third variable problem 1. The more ice cream in a month, the more murders occura. Does eating more ice cream = murder2. There could be another variable a. Hot weather6. Draw the Types of Correlation for Each GraphGraph A: Positive Graph B: Negative Graph C: None7. What do you do in experimental research? Causality: Is variable X a cause of variable Y You can manipulate some event or variable so that people experience it one way or another way and look to see if differences in behavioral occura. List its strengths: i. Can determine cause and effectii. Gain control over the situationb. Lists its limitations: i. Lacks external validity 1. Might not apply to people’s everyday lives8. Hypothesis: Does room temperature affect test performance?Procedure: Assign each student in psych 100 with a number and put them in a random number generator to separate them into 3 equal groups. Assuming everyone studies the same amount, place group 1 in a testing room with a temperature of 60 degrees. Place group 2 in a testing room with a temperature of 75 degrees. Place group 3 in a room with a temperature of 95 degrees. Record test score results. Identify the following: a. Independent variable: _____ Room temperatureb. Dependent Variable: ___Test Scores____________________________________c. Is it controlled? ___ The amount of studying everyone doesd. Is there random assignment? ___ Yes ________9. Define the followinga. Mean: The sum of all the numbers divided by how many people there are b. Median: The data that right in the middle c. Mode: The data where most of the numbers lie

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