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UMass Amherst MICROBIO 160 - Immune System Functions

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MicroBio 160 1st EditionLecture 4Outline of Last LectureCells Organization of Cells II. The Cell Cycle The Cell Checkpoints III. Growth Factors IV. Cell Function and Cancer Characteristics of a Normal Cell and Cancer Cell V. Protein ProductionV. Genetic Code VII.DNA ReplicationOutline of Current LectureImmune System Functions I. Blood vs Lymph Cells of the Immune System InnateAdaptive III. Cells Derived from Bone MarrowIV. Cell FunctionsV. AntibodyVI. Functional Immune SystemVII.The Immune SystemVIII.Cell Types Infected by HIVCurrent LectureThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.Immune System Functions: to protect the body every day from viruses,toxins, fungus, bacteria, parasites, germs, pollutionGood at protecting the body from cancer— cancer has to escape the immune system in order to formLymph Nodes: where your blood andimmune system come together andexchange information about pathogensGreen lines are the lymphatic systemLymph can get out and surround yourcells— Purpose of lymph is to supportyour immune systemBLOODLYMPHhas color (red/blue)colorlesscirculates in closed circuitopen circuit (interstitial space: space in betweenyour cells, vascular system)vascular system (blood, arteries, veins, heart—no red blood cellsmain transport system of the body)red blood cellslow protein concentrationhigh protein concentrationless nutrients and wastemore nutrients and wastemore immune cellsexchange in capillary networkexchange in capillary networkLymphatic and Vascular Systems:Cells of the Immune System:Innate Immunity: these components are always “TURNED ON” and are not antigen specific•Phagocytes (Macrophages) eat thingsAdaptive Immunity: these components are “TURNED ON” in response to specific antigensAdaptive system can take two weeks to turn on (highly specific) Adaptive system recognizes the antigens, innate doesn’t Cells Derived from Bone Marrow:Blood stem cell in bone marrow (stem cells: very immature cells, can become just aboutany cell in that part our body) Undifferentiated: can become any cell in the blood stream including RBC’s, platelets and immune cells (white blood cells)Erythroid stem cell A. Erythrocyte Myeloid stem cell A. Platelets — gas transportationBasophil—(Inflammation)— clotting and inflammation Neutrophil—(Phagocytosis)— innate immunity and second line of defense— leukocytesEosinophil— (Phagocytosis) — innate immunity and second line of defense— leukocytes Monocyte—(Phagocytosis)— innate immunity and second line of defense— leukocytes Lymphoid stem cell A. Lymphocyte — adaptive immunity—leukocytesOnce they start to mature they can become part of different stem cells (limited to what their potential is) Leukocytes: (aren’t ready to defend you yet)Myeloid cells become Innate Immune System Cell Functions:Phagocytes eat cellsNeutrophil Eosinophil Basophil Monocytes Macrophage: capable of moving, can escape your bloodstream, patrol your body for things to eat Dendritic cell Complement protein Mast cells: (allergies— regulate inflammatory response)Natural killer cell: don’t eat things, destroy your cellsIf cell is infected, cell sends signals to say it’s infected Natural killer cell kills the cell and sends it to apoptosis Every cell in your body has all the same DNAAbility to move through your body turn off in your stomach cells Cancer cells can gain the ability to move aroundLymphoid cells become adaptive immune system cell functions:Main jobs: an attempt to try to prevent auto immunity Antibodies is the reason why your body is incredibly specific T cells mature in the Thymus Any T cells which recognizes self is destroyed Autoimmune diseases arise when this system fails to detect self-recognizing T cells B cells mature in the bone marrow— they become plasma cells and memory cells (both produce antibodies) Antibody: a protein produced in response to antigen invasion•“Antigen specific” meaning that antibody A only recognizes only antigen A•Antigen determinants on antigen: “foreign” protein recognized by the immune system as a threatHow do all these cells work together to make a functional immune system? :Antigen Presenting Cells: naive because it hasn’t seen anything in the worldRandomly produces antibodies Antibodies can recognize antigen Helper cell- send out alarm Memory B cells- next time you get exposed to it, they will remember and get rid of it soonerMemory B cells make antibodies specific to the pathogen that was just destroyed Recognizes good antibody (make more) If the infection is cleared, then some B cells will develop into memory B cellsThe Immune System:Infected again (Adaptive Immune System) Antibody recognizes BacteriaB cells start to divide• Secrete antibodiesAntibodies can flood the invaders (smaller than cells so they can travel farther away) Want more memory cells to get a faster response If you got invaded by something different, no immunity, doesn’t defend as quickly Cell Types Infected by HIV:These cells have 3 receptors in common (CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4)•HIV uses these three receptors to enter hosts, therefore HIV can infect all 4 of these cells typesVaccines: so we can produce memory B cells— first response so the second time you don’t get as


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