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OU HIST 1483 - Colonial Conflict and Slavery

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HIST 1483 1st Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last LectureI. PlymouthII. British Advantages in the New WorldIII. VirginiaIV. Proprietary MarylandV. DivisionVI. CarolinaVII. New YorkVIII. PennsylvaniaIX. Closing QuestionX. CLICKER QUESTIONOutline of Current LectureI. Closing Question from Lecture 5II. ColonialismIII. VirginiaIV. ChesapeakeV. The New Problem of the Shortage of LaborVI. SlaveryVII. CLICKER QUESTIONSCurrent LectureI. Closing Question from Lecture 5A. By the time the colonies were ready to break free from England the strongest colony wasin Jamaica1. Not very populated2. No one had really done anything with it3. Oliver Cromwell seized it to menace the Catholic Spanish empire in the Caribbean4. English merchants and planters in Port Royal imported slaves from Barbadosi. By the end of the century there were 8x as many slaves as English peopleii. In Port Royal in 1692, an earthquake hit and most of the island sank and many of the inhabitants drownedThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.B. Of the many important British colonies, some of the most important weren’t part of North AmericaII. ColonialismA. A system built on conquest, subjugation, and captivity1. In the colonies life was horrible and short for many people (indentured servants, African slaves, Indians)B. Gaining control over North America meant that the investment into the colonies had to pay of1. Most colonization was for economic investment and profitC. Colonial mastery had many factors1. Colonies had to become economically self-sufficienti. Couldn’t rely on the Mother Country indefinitelyii. Had to make their own way, especially in foodstufsiii. Once they could subsist themselves they had to become militarily secure against the Native populationsa. On the Atlantic coast they were successful militarily(1) Still, this created internal struggles between the English people and the crown officials over resources, land, political influence, etc.iv. Over time, native-born American elites emerged and solidified control over theseelements of power which brought inevitable conflict with the crowna. They had to gain strength, mature, and eventually break awayv. Indians were always in the backdropD. The colonists had to control agricultural land which meant conflict with Indians1. Puritans talked about the importance of treating Natives kindly and attempting to convert them religiously with missionariesi. Operative issue was colonial security, meaning they needed security from potentially hostile Indiansa. In the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies this was easy because the coastal populations had been decimated by diseaseb. As the colonies expanded they had to deal with the Pequots who were menaced by their growth(1) Massachusetts Bay officials felt that they needed to destroy the power of the Pequots before the survival of the colony could be secured(2) Pequot War(i) Waged in 1636 in response to a few small raves undertaken by the Indians(ii) 90 Puritan militiamen attacked the Pequot settlements, who retaliated against the most isolated towns in MA(iii) Pequots killed about 30 colonists so in 1637 the Puritans declared waron these Indians and allied themselves with the Narraganset and Wompanoag Indians(iv) Pequot fort at Mystic was the primary Pequot settlement which was surrounded and burned(a) Survivors were sold of as slaves to Boston households(v) The Pequot threat was eliminated for a while(vi) In the 1670s, King Phillip’s war2. King Phillip’s Wari. King Phillip = Metacom, son of Massasoit (who let the Pilgrims be assisted and fed)a. Massasoit basically the father of Thanksgivingii. Metacom is over helping the Puritans (he was humiliated, forced into submission)a. Got revenge in 1675 when a confederation of tribes under him raided the entire Massachusetts/Connecticut frontier(1) Indians often struck during Sunday religious services(2) By 1676 New England was in chaos and about 2,000 Massachusetts Puritans, 100s of Indians, and Metacom died while 100s of Indians were sold into slaveryiii. Indians were becoming overwhelmed by European immigrationa. Map looked like Indian settlements with English settlements all around themb. Surviving Pequots confederated (composite tribe) called the Brothertown Indiansc. Sold their land and moved out of New EnglandIII. VirginiaA. Recall Opechanacanough’s violent uprising in 1622 which he survived 1. After, the Chesapeake region grew stronger as the colonies built and trained their own militiasi. Focused on pushing Indians back (which meant harassing and exterminating)ii. Troops marched through Indian settlements and seized property, destroyed crops, and killed Indians2. A second war erupted in 1644 led by Opechanacanough who was determined to fight back even if he couldn’t realistically wini. Powhatans under him were simply resigned to a grim fatalistic approach thinking it was better to die honorably in combatii. Opechanacanough did everything he could to arm his men with musketryiii. Still a successful uprising that inflicted terrible carnage on Virginiaa. More than 500 were killediv. Indians lost over 1,000 and were ultimately destroyedIV. ChesapeakeA. Another episode of violenceB. Remnants of Powhatan Indians were crushed in 1676C. In 1715 they gathered all the surviving Indians and placed them on a reservation on the southwestern border of North Carolina called Fort Christina1. They isolated them then removed themD. Indian threat gone, more land availableV. The New Problem of the Shortage of LaborA. By the 1670s the colonies were sufering a labor shortage because indentured servitude was less favoredB. Wealthy Chesapeake landowners had to find a solution1. Their solution: Import African slaves from Barbados and JamaicaVI. SlaveryA. It was dying out in Europe in the 15th century and starting in the western hemisphereB. The Portuguese were the great initiators of the Atlantic slave trade1. Traded for slaves with coastal African kingdoms C. Slavery in Africa was based on captivation and warfare and it was not hereditary1. Slaves became in a way almost members of the family2. The Portuguese exploited thisi. Understood coastal slaves had value (could be purchased and traded) so they took advantage by arming the coastal tribes so they could go into the interior andfight other tribesii. They could now capture enemies, bring them to the coast, and


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