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OU HIST 1483 - Continuing the Timeline of Colonization

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HIST 1483 1st Edition Lecture 5Outline of Last LectureI. The DutchII. The EnglishIII. Brief of Next LectureIV. Clicker QuestionsOutline of Current LectureI. PlymouthII. British Advantages in the New WorldIII. VirginiaIV. Proprietary MarylandV. DivisionVI. CarolinaVII. New YorkVIII. PennsylvaniaIX. Closing QuestionX. CLICKER QUESTIONCurrent LectureI. PlymouthA. Separatists (Pilgrims) via the Mayflower with the Mayflower Compact which was a document they drew up to govern themselvesB. Puritans1. There were hundreds of thousands in England, some held positions in Parliament2. Not trying to separate themselves from the Church of England, rather purify it3. Opposed to King James I and Charles I4. John Winthrop, who eventually becomes the head of the colony, lead the joint stock company for the Massachusetts Bay Colony with a joint stock chartera. Located the Company’s headquarters in Massachusetts (instead of England) so they could be self-governingi. In doing this they took a commercial contract and turned it into an ordinance for self-governanceb. In 1639, 700 Puritans on 11 ships sailed for New Englandc. On the Arbella, Winthrop wrote “A Model of Christian Charities”i. Idea of setting an example for the rest of the worldThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.ii. “City upon a hill”, “The eyes of all people are upon us”iii. Wanted to build a religious utopian to perfect their attempt to purify the Church of Englandiv. Trying to build a biblical commonwealth(1) Theocratic government (church is the state)(2) Puritan legal codes were based on religious conceptsv. American Exceptionalism(1) Belief that America was ordained to be a land of liberty and a beacon to others(2) Winthrop had no concept of an American Nation, no concept of it becoming an exceptional nationd. The Massachusetts Bay Colony (MBC) was self-governingi. Had a court comprised of Puritans which eventually became an elective assemblyii. Governorship was elective but Winthrop served until he diesC. For Puritans and Separatists, the New England colony was built on religious (rather than profit like the Chesapeake) motives1. Life in the Chesapeake was cheap2. Life in New Englanda. Courts issued town charters and large groups of close-knit people moved together from England to America and clustered around town centersb. Farms were away from town, radiated outc. There was a small-town (village) environment which could not expand because the farms placed a town limitd. Emphasis on community involvement and readinge. Town meetings became the main mechanism for people to bring up their issues (which still exists today in the form of city council meetings)3. Even though these people came for religious liberty they didn’t tolerate religious radicalsa. People who were extremists were attracted to the MBCb. Very little religious tolerancec. Roger Williamsi. Disagreed with the theocratic form of government and argued that church and state should be separateii. Puritans had no right to impose their belief system on othersiii. They were going to send him back to England but they banished him and he fled to the land of the Narragansett Indians where he founded Providence d. Anne Hutchinsoni. Reasoned that since God could touch and even lead people through direct revelation (which was heresy), there was no reason for the Puritan Churchii. She was banished and fled to Providencee. Read more about religious dissonance in the chapter4. By the end of the 17th century the Chesapeake and New England regions had roughly the same populationa. New England about 93,000 inhabitants, most of whom came before the English civil wars in the 1640s (so this growth was natural because of good environments)b. By the end of the 17th century 100,000 people had migrated to Virginia but only 85,000 were alivec. Why was there a higher life expectancy in New England (69 years in New England, even longer than it was in England)?i. No indentured servantsii. Better climateiii. More compatible family lifeiv. More dispersed towns which helped prevent the spread of diseaseII. Britain had advantages in the New WorldA. English colonial enterprises and policies were very important and Britain was particularlysuccessful at planting colonies along the north Atlantic coastB. There was definitely competition between European countries for America’s resources C. Advantages England had1. Britain is isolated (protected by the North Sea and the English Channel) and it didn’t have to dissipate its resources by maintaining large standing armies like the French, Dutch, and Germans did2. It was able to maintain a balance of power with other nations through its navel supremacy3. Successful at finding colonists for the new world because of its surplus populationa. It had relatively few people (4 million) compared to other countries (8 million) but then during the 15th century owners of big estates started enclosing their land with hedges which kicked peasants off the landi. They were getting better at agriculture but a lot of people had to get off the landii. These people were considered “surplus”4. Saw the colonies as a place to unload unwanted people unlike other countries who required strict religious adherence a. Thus the population in the colonies was more numerous and more heterogeneousIII. VirginiaA. After the massacre in 1622 at the hands of Opechancanough, crown officials disbanded the Virginia Company because King James I wanted the direct profits from the tobacco tradeB. It was declared a royal colony with an appointed governor sent from England to rule absolutely 1. Stewart kings for New England were in power (same was true of the Chesapeake)a. King James I and his son Charles I reigned with tighter control than Queen Elizabethi. Believed they were kings because God made them kingsii. Didn’t tolerate religious dissent which led Puritans, Separatists, Quakers, Huguenots, and Catholics to go to the New Worldiii. They mingled with those who came for land and continually demanded their right to rule themselves (1) In 1639, Charles I granted Virginia a representative assembly(2) The House of Burgesses was born(3) Unlike French and Spanish colonists, the English managed to avoid complete imperial control from the Mother CountryIV. Proprietary MarylandA. Came out of King James I who showed favoritism


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