Pitt PSY 0010 - Final Exam Study Guide (20 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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PSY 0010 1nd Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 17 22 Stress and Health Stressors and Stress Stress o Physical emotional cognitive and behavioral responses to stressors Hassles Frustrations delays irritations minor disagreements etc Residual ripples from stressors Little minor hassles collectively can cause a significant amount of stress Psychological Stressors Pressure o Comes from external sources expectations Uncontrollable Uncontrollability Frustration Conflict Two desires or goals only one of which is obtainable Approach Approach o Win win situation o Two desires or goals but you have to pick one Approach Avoidance o Must choose or not choose goal with both positive and negative aspects Avoidance Avoidance o Must choose or not choose o caught between a rock and a hard place Fight or Flight Response Automatic physiological response Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Division o arouses o fight or flight Parasympathetic Division o calms o rest and digest HPA Axis ANS Activation Adrenal medulla o Secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine Secretion of glucocorticoids o What gets the fight or flight going Hypothalmalic pituitary adrenal Axis HPA Axis Secretion of glucocorticoids Hans Selye General Adaptation Syndrome Body s defense against stress Reaction to any environmental stressor Stress and Disease Heart disease o Stress increases the risk for this because of decrease in liver functions Cancer o Stress impacts t cells they are decreased or impaired and then we won t be able to fight off cancer Diabetes o Increased risk for this with an increase of stress Preventing Suicide Listen ask about feelings companioning most important Stress Appraisal Lazarus and Folkman 1984 Person environment o relationship Primary Appraisal o What is at stake Ex wont have money to pay for X or get through week if answer isn t a problem you don t go to secondary Secondary Appraisal o What can I do about it If nothing that is a big stressor o Ex about to be overdrawn in your bank account Coping Mastering tolerating or reducing stressor effects Problem focused o Eliminate or reduce source of stress by direct action o More effective Emotion focused o Change how one feels or reacts emotionally Ex scream or cry Suicide 3rd leading cause of death in adolescents in the USA Highest rate elderly white males Stress and Personality Optimists o Expect positive outcomes Pessimists o Expect negative outcomes Become an Optimistic Thinker 1 Stop and think rather than feeling and automatically responding 2 Recognize negative statements o catch yourself and step back and look at it in a better angle 3 Challenge negative thoughts Stress and Social Factors Poverty Work stress o burn out when it becomes too much Acculturation o Adapting to a new environment Acculturative Stress From need to adapt one s ways to that of majority culture Integration o Integrates their culture with the one they move to Not automatic Assimilation o Give up old culture to adapt to the new one Separation o Completely rejects new culture Marginalization o Not completely in either Dealing With Stress Preventing and Managing Preventing o Planning and organizing o Time management o Self care o Resources o buffering Managing o Stop and think o Self calming techniques o Deep breathing o Relaxation techniques Yoga prayer meditation visual imagery Personality Personality Individual s characteristic way of thinking feeling and acting Personality is set doesn t change much after adolescents Psychoanalytic Theory Freud he worked in hospital settings o Patients suffering from nervous disorders Symptoms could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes Clinical experience o first personality theory Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory Structure of the mind Psychosexual stages o Are highly influenced by sexuality Influence of early experiences Freud Structure of the Mind ID o Unconscious psychic energy o Motivated by our sexual drive Ego o Executive Superego o Internalized ideas o What we should do and how we should behave Mind Conscious mind o What we are fully aware of Preconscious o Outside awareness but accessible Unconscious mind o Work really hard to get access to it ID Unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives Operates on the pleasure principle o Demanding immediate gratification Superego Provides standards for the conscience and standards for the future aspirations Ego Functions as executive Mediates demands of ID and superego Defense mechanisms Psychosexual Stages ID s pleasure seeking energies focused on pleasure sensitive body areas called erogenous zones Oral Stage First stage first year Mouth o Erogenous zone Weaning is primary conflict o If there is a problem fixation Anal Stage 1 3 years toilet training Conflict o Expulsive vs retentive Personalities o Problem people who don t get through this problem in a good way will be messy anal retentive Phallic Stage 3 6 years sexual feelings Oedipus complex boys Oedipus Complex Boy s sexual desire for his mother and hatred for his father who is viewed as a rival A girl s desire for her father is called the Electra Complex Identification Cope with threatening impulses by repressing them o Happens unconsciously and becoming more like rival parent Superego gains strength that incorporates parents values Latency Stage 6 to puberty influence of ID is not very present sexual feelings repressed same sex play social skills Genital Stage Puberty Sexual feelings consciously expressed Fixation Unresolved psychosexual stage conflict stuck in stage and retains relevant personality characteristics and behaviors Defense Mechanisms Ego s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Ex repression regression regresses back to a period of their life rationalization reinterpret our behavior sublimation when we redirect our sexual angered energy The overuse of these examples will cause problems Behaviorist View Second and opposite to Freud s theory Define personality as a set of learned habits or responses Observable behavior and measureable behavior Social Cognitive View Emphasize importance of other behaviors and own expectations Social Cognitive Albert Bandura Personality is a result of interaction between person and social contact Reciprocal Determinism o 3 Aspects that interact with each other o 1 Internal Cognitive Factors thoughts and feelings about risky activities o 2 Environmental factors bungee jumping friends o 3 Behavior learning to bungee jump Self


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