Pitt PSY 0010 - Personality Pt. 2 and Psychological Disorders (9 pages)

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Personality Pt. 2 and Psychological Disorders

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Personality Pt. 2 and Psychological Disorders


Personality and Psychological Disorders

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Pittsburgh
Psy 0010 - Introduction to Psychology
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PSY 0010 1st Edition Lecture 18 Outline of Last Lecture I Personality Outline of Current Lecture II Personality Continued III Psychological Disorders Current Lecture Personality Behavioral Assessment Direct observation o Clinical or natural settings Ex Clinical therapist s office institutional setting Ex Natural playground or at home o Rating scale Where behaviors are rated Ex How disruptive how shy etc o Frequency count Ex How often does X happen These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Humanism Assessment Rogers Ask people to describe how they see themselves real self and how they would like to be ideal self o Healthy personality in Rogers s view is when real self and ideal self match Evaluate similarity of descriptions for congruence healthy or incongruence unhealthy personality assessment Assessing Traits Personality Inventories o A series of questions usually long o Response format yes no can t decide etc 16PF Cattell o used statistical analysis to narrow down way to desribe personality traits NEO PI Big Five o Measurement tool used to measure Big Five factors MMPI II Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory o Most widely used personality inventory used in research o 567 true false questions people are told to answer whether something is true or false about you there is no in between answers Personality Tests on the Internet Questionable reliability and validity Lack of professional interpretation Psychological Disorders Synonymous terms o Psychopathology o Abnormal Psychology o Mental Illness Early Treatment of Mental Illness Ancient times o Evil spirits released by trephining Trephining drill holes in person s skulls to release the spirits Hippocrates o Mental illnesses arose from imbalance of body fluids We had 4 major bodily fluids blood phlegm black bile yellow bile Middles Ages o Mentally ill labeled as witches o Treatment submerge people in water to see if they could float If they were a witch they would be put to death Psychological Disorders What is normal What is abnormal There is a grey area sometimes it is black and white o Depends on many different factors Normal Abnormal Complex o Normal Abnormal o Continuum What is Abnormal Abnormal behavior is statistically rare o There are fewer people who meet the criteria for abnormality than those who don t Social Norm Deviation o When an individual deviates from social norms it can be and often is considered abnormal Subjective discomfort o Comes from the person themselves o So much anxiety that a person is uncomfortable Inability to Function o If the individual is having difficulty functioning because of their level of discomfort this is abnormality Danger to Self or Others o This is always considered abnormal and something to be careful about Abnormality Frequency o How often does this happen Intensity o How low is that low mood How high is the high mood Duration o How long does it last Medical Model Etiology o What is the cause and how does it develop of a disorder within an individual Diagnosis o Identifying symptoms and distinguishing one disorder from another Biological Model Behavior is cause by biological changes in chemical structural or genetic systems of the body Looking at how and why symptoms occur how symptoms begin etc o All rooted in biology Psychological Model Psychodynamic o Ego not doing so well Behavioral o Influence of the environment that causes faulty learning that leads to psychological disorders Cognitive o People who have symptoms or disorders rooted in irrational or irregular thinking processes These are all models of abnormality Sociocultural Perspective Cultural Relativity o Important to consider individual s cultural background to diagnose and treat Cultural Syndromes o In another cultural symptoms may be abnormal Cultural idioms of distress o How does a particular culture interpret when someone is in distress o Different in different cultures Cultural explanations perceived cause o Varied based on differences in cultures o Important to recognize and be aware of these cultural differences Classifying Disorders DSM 5 2013 o Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Disorders o Used for diagnosis 250 Disorders o symptoms o typical course grouped by chapters o disorders that share common features symptoms does not address treatment Anxiety Disorders Feelings of excessive apprehension or anxiety o Mental tenseness uncomfortable Social Anxiety Disorder Fear of social situations o Avoidance of social situations Fear of performance situations o Normal for slight discomfort in front of people Humiliation embarrassment concerns o Causes a lot of distress o Impairs functioning People are unable to manage their lives well Specific Phobias Fear of an object or situation Excessive or unreasonable The person themselves must come to the conclusion that their fear is excessive o Common Agoraphobia fear of open places Acrophobia fear of heights Claustrophobia fear of closed spaces Hemophobia fear of blood Panic Disorder Discrete episodes of intense dread o Last about 10 minutes Physiological symptoms o Always exist always intense o Ex racing heart chest tenseness difficulty breathing etc Cognitive Symptoms o Thinking about what is going on Can sometimes cause another panic attack to occur Agoraphobia Fear of market place fear of open places Anxiety about being in open or public spaces Escape concerns o How will the individual get to safety in panic attack o What if people see Panic attack concerns o Causes avoidance of public spaces Generalized Anxiety Disorder Worried about everything all of the time o what if Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension worry about almost everything all of most of the time low key chronic anxiety o tired easily Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Persistent unwanted thoughts obsessions o Unable to get these thoughts out of their head o Disturbing troubling thoughts Persistent unwanted behaviors compulsions o Ex hand washing o Reduces anxiety Repetitive ritualistic behaviors o Ex turning lights off how ever many times before going to bed Trauma and Stressor related Disorders Acute Stress disorder o Diagnosed up to 1 month after a traumatic event occurs o Must display a certain number of symptoms related to event o Can escalate to PTSD after a month Post traumatic stress disorder PTSD o More than 1 month after event Acute and Post traumatic Stress Disorder

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