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Chapter 13• Coercive power- fear of the negative• Reward power- comply bc of positive benefits• Legit power- formal authority• Personal power- comes from a person’s unique characteristicso Expert- influence as a result of expertiseo Referent- admiration of another and a desire to be like them• Personal power sources are most effective, coercive can backfire• Dependency increases when the resource you control is important, scarce and nonsubstitutable• Power/ influence tacticso Legitimacyo Rational persuasion- effective, on all levelso Inspirational appeals- effective, best as downward influenceo Consultation- effectiveo Exchangeo Personal appealso Ingratiationo Pressure- tends to backfire and is least effectiveo Coalitions• Organizational politics- focus on the use of power to affect decision making in an org• Political behavior- activities that are not required as part of a person’s formal role• Politicking- people in orgs will use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests• Factors contributing to political behavioro Individual Those who are self monitor, possess an internal locus of control and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavioro Org factors Certain situations and cultures Promotion decisions The less trust in an org• Perceptions of org politics are negatively related to job satisfaction, also tends to increase job anxiety and stress• Impression management (IM)- process by which people attempt to control the impression others form of themo Conformityo Favorso Excuseso Apologieso Self promotiono Enhancemento Flatteryo Exemplification•Chapter 15• Org structure- defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated•• Work specialization- to what degree are activities subdivided into separate jobs?• Departmentalization- on what basis will jobs be grouped together?• Chain of command- to whom do people report?• Span of control- how many ppl can a manager efficiently manage?• Centralization and de- where does decision making authority lie?• Formalization- degree of rules to direct employees and managers•• Authority- rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and expect them to be obeyed• Unity of command- helps preserve the concept of an unbroken line of authority• Simple structure- low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, little formalization• Matrix structure- combines functional and producto Functional- putting like specialists together Difficulty of coordinating tasks on timeo Product depart- coordination among specialties• Virtual org (modular)- small, core org that outsources major business functions, highly centralizedo Adv- allows people with innovative and little money to compete• Boundaryless org- GE chairman Jack welch, eliminate all barriers and chain of command, limitless spans of control• Strategies for downsizingo Participationo Investmento Communicationo Assistance• Innovation strategy (organic)- achieve unique innovations, apple• Cost- min strategy (mechanistic)- tight control over $, cuts prices in selling a basic product, Wal-Mart• Imitation strategy- combines both, minimize risk and max opp for profit• Environment dimensionso Capacity- degree to support growtho Volatility- degree of instabilityo Complexity- degree of heterogeneityChapter 16• Organizational culture characteristicso Innovation and risk takingo Attention to detailo Outcome orientationo People “o Team “o Aggressivenesso Stability• Cultures functionso Boundary defining roleo Conveys a sense of identityo Culture facilitates generation of commitmento Enhances the stability of social systemo A sense making and control mechanism• Culture as a liabilityo Institutionalization It takes on a life of its own, apart from its founders or memberso Barriers to changeo Barriers to diversityo Barriers to acquisitions or mergers• Culture creation occurs in 3 wayso Founders hire and keep only employees who think and feel the same way they doo They indoctrinate and socialize these employees to their way of thinking and feelingo Founders’ own behavior encourages employees to identify with them• Sustaining a cultureo Selection practices- goal is to identify and hire ppl with abilities to perform successfullyo Top management- est norms that filter thru orgo Socialization- process to help new employees adapt to culture Prearrival Encounter  Metamorphosis• Major bundles of socializationo Institutionalo Individual• Culture is transmitted througho Storieso Rituals- repetitive activities that reinforce key values of the orgo Material symbols- jets, size of offices, perkso Language• Create more ethical cultureo Be a visible role modelo Communicate ethical expectationso Provide ethical trainingo Visibly reward ethical acts and punish bad o Provide protective mechanisms• Cultural characteristics in spiritual orgso Strong sense of purposeo Trust and respecto Humanistic work practiceso Toleration of employee expressionChapter 18• Forces for changeo Nature of workforceo Technologyo Economic shockso Competitiono Social trendso World politics• Change agent- manage change activities and see a future for the org that others haven’t seen• Sources of resistance to changeo Individual Habit Security Economic factors Fear of the unknown Selective info processingo Org Structural inertia Limited focus of change Group inertia Threat to expertise “ est power relationships• tactics to help change agents with resistance to changeo education and communicationo participationo building support and commitmento develop positive relationshipso implement changes fairlyo manipulation and cooptationo selecting ppl who accept changeo coercion• kurt lewin three step model for a successful changeo unfreezing the status quo driving forces- increase, direct behavior away from quo restraining forces- decrease, hinder movement away from equilibriumo movemento refreezing• action research- change process based on systematic collection of data and selection of a change action based on what the data indicateo diagnosiso analysiso feedbacko actiono evaluationo two benefits its problem focused it reduces resistance to change• organizational development (OD)- change methods that try to improve org effectiveness and employee


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