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Lectures 4-6 Chapters 5-8Chapter 5Personality-The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others (measurable traits a person exhibits)Heredity-Factors determined at conception- one’s biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup.Personality traits-Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI)-A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types • Extraverted versus Introverted- Extraverted individuals are outgoing sociable and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy• Sensing versus Intuitive- Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order they focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.”• Thinking versus Feeling- Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions.• Judging versus Perceiving- Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.Big Five Model-A personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions1. Extraversion- A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive. 2. Agreeableness- A personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting 3. Conscientiousness-A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. (Most Important for organizational success)4. Emotional stability- A personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure versus nervous, depressed, and insecure. 5. Openness to experience- A personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiosity Corse self-evaluation- The degree to which an individual likes or dislikes himself or herself, whether the person sees himself or herself as capable and effective, and whether the person feels in control of his or her environment or powerless over the environment.Machiavellianism(or Mach)- The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. (If it works use it)(How to gain and use power)Narcissism- The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement. (Being the center of attention) Self-monitoring-A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factorsType A personality- Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and if necessary against the opposing efforts of other things or other people Proactive personality- People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.(People who take action to improve situations)Values- Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence • Content-A mode of conduct or end-state of existence is important• Intensity-How important a mode of conduct or end state of existence isValue system- A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity Rokeach Value Survey(RVS)• Terminal values- Desirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.• Instrumental values- Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal valuesPersonality-job fit theory- A theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.• Realistic- Prefers physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination• Investigative Prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding • Social- Prefers activities that involve helping and developing others • Conventional- Prefers rule regulated orderly and unambiguous activities• Enterprising- Prefers verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power• Artistic- Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expressionHofstede’s Framework • Power distance- A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally• Individualism- A national culture attribute that describes the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups.• Collectivism- A national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them. • Masculinity- A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which the culture favors traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power, and control. Societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism.• Femininity- A national culture attribute that indicates little differentiation between male and female roles; a high rating indicates that women are treated as the equals of men in all aspects of the society• Uncertainty avoidance- A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them• Long-term orientation- A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence.• Short-term orientation-A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social obligationsChapter 6Perception- A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment• Factors in the perceiver(Attitude, motives, interests, experience, expectations)• Factors in the situation(time, work setting, social setting)• Factors in the target(novelty, motion, sounds, size, background, proximity, similarity)Person Perception- the perceptions people form about each otherAttribution theory- An attempt to determine whether an individual’s behavior is internally or externally caused• Distinctiveness-refers to whether an individual displays different behaviors in different


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