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Chapter 13 Power the capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A s wishes Someone can have the power and not use it it is a capacity or potential It is a function of dependency which is B s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires Someone can only have power over you when they have something you desire Leadership vs Power Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals Power only requires dependency while leadership requires goal compatibility that the goals of the leader and those being led are similar or the same Formal Power is based on an individual s position in an organization Coercive power a power base that is dependent on fear of the negative results from failing to comply Rests on the threat of physical sanctions such as infliction of pain restriction of movement or the controlling by force Ex if A has coercive power over B A can dismiss suspend or demote B assign B to unpleasant activities or treat B in an embarrassing manner Reward Power Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable People comply because it produces positive benefits such as financial rewards including pay raises and bonuses or nonfinancial rewards including praise and promotions Legitimate Power the power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization Formal authority to control and use organizational resources based on a structural position in the organization CEO has power over an intern in a company Personal Power is influence derived from an individual s characteristics Expert Power influence based as a result of expertise special skills or knowledge Doctor s has expert power because of their schooling background and experience so we follow their advice Referent Power influence based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits A person you like respect and admire can have power over you since you want to please them Develops out of admiration of another and desire to be like that person Ex celebrities endorsing products to get you to buy them The General Dependency Postulate The great B s dependency on A the more power A has over B If you have the only item for sale in a product category you have the most power because everyone has to come to you to buy it That is why most businesses have many suppliers in order to avoid financial dependence Dependency increases when the resource you control is important scarce and nonsubstitutable Importance If nobody wants what you have there won t be a great dependence on you Ex If you re a marketer in a technology based firm odds are your services won t make or break the company but a marketer at Procter and Gamble a giant company that sells consumer products your services will be much more desirable and therefore you will be more dependent upon When items are hard to find it creates scarcity which drives demand for the specific Scarcity product Ex Ferruccio Lamborghini before creating the world famous car line repaired tanks and cars in WWII like no one else could and everyone required his services because when he first got there he read the repair manuals memorized them and then destroyed them only letting few other mechanics read them Nonsubstitutability dependent on your services When there are no other alternatives besides the product you offer people become Power Tactics ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions how you influence your boss co workers or employees effectively Nine distinct influence tactics 1 Legitimacy relying on your authority position or saying a requires accords with 2 Rational Persuasion presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate organizational policies or rules a request is reasonable values needs hopes and aspirations you will accomplish your plan request 3 Inspirational Appeals developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target s 4 Consultation increasing the target s support by involving him or her in deciding how 5 Exchange rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for following a 6 Personal Appeals asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty 7 Ingratiation using flattery praise or friendly behavior prior to making a request 8 Pressure using warnings repeated demands and threats a Tends to backfire and typically least effective 9 Coalitions enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agree Rational Persuasion inspirational appeals and consultation tend to be most effective Increase chance of success by using more than one type of tactic Political Skill the ability to influence others in such a way as to enhance one s objectives More effective at using influence tactics when the stakes are high and are good at influencing people without others detecting it Sexual harassment any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual s employment and creates a hostile work environment Negatively affects the work environment in job satisfaction and can major legal and financial penalties Supreme Court added that when comments or behavior in a work environment would reasonably be perceived and are perceived as hostile or abusive to try and help in determining actual offenses Organizational Politics focus on the use of power to affect decision making in an organization or on self serving and organizationally unsanctioned behaviors When employees exert their power into action Political Behavior activities that are not required as part of a person s formal role in the organization but that influence or attempt to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization Influencing goals criteria or processes for decision making Legitimate political behavior normal everyday politics that including complaining to your supervisor bypassing the chain of command and developing contacts outside the organization through professional activities Illegitimate political behavior extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game Includes sabotage whistle blowing and symbolic protests Many managers report some use of political behavior in their organization and say that it would be impossible to get anything done without it Organizations are made up of individuals and groups that not all their goals can be satisfied because resources are limited Most of the facts used to allocate the limited


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