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FSU MAN 3240 - Chapter 14: Power and Politics

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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDEChapter 14: Power and Politics-The definition of power implies a potential and a dependency relationship.-The greater B’s dependence on A, the greater A’s power in the relationship.-Power may exist but not be used. One can have power and not impose it.-Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals.-Difference between leadership and power: 1. Power requires dependence, Leadership requires goal compatibility. 2. Leadership focuses on the downward influence on one's followers, while power focuses on lateral and upward influence patterns.3. Leadership research emphasizes style, while research on power focuses on tactics for gaining compliance.Two Bases of Power:1. Formal Powera. coercive power-one reacts to this power out of fear of the negative results that might occur if one failed to comply-examples: Using the threats of: demoting someone’s job, embarrassment , or to stop withholding key informationb. reward power-getting people to comply by giving them valuable rewards-rewards can be either financial (pay rates, raises, bonuses) or non-financial (recognition, promotion, interesting work assignments, friendly colleagues, preferred work shifts or sales territories) c. legitimate power-includes the acceptance by members in an organization of the authority of a position-example: when school principles, bank presidents, or army captains speak.. teachers, tellers, and first lieutenants listen and usually comply2. Personal Power-power that comes from an individuals unique characteristics -more effective than formal powera. expert power-based on expertise, special skill, or knowledge-examples of people who have it: doctors, computer specialists, tax accountants, economists, industrial psychologistsb. referent power-influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits-if i like, respect, and admire you, you can exercise power over me because i want to please you-develops out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person-examples: celebrity endorsement of products in commercials-acquired through charismatic dynamism, likeability, and emotional effects1-Both expert and referent power are related to employee satisfaction, commitment, and performance; where reward and legitimate power are not.-Coercive power is negatively related to employee satisfaction and commitment.-The general dependency postulate: The greater B's dependency on A, the greater the power of A has over B.-If you create a monopoly by controlling information, prestige, or anything others crave, they become dependent on you.-Dependency is increased when the resource you control is:1. Important-Marketing departments of firms are rated most powerful because they control the importance resource of uncertainty.2. Scarce-Possession of important knowledge/scarce resources can make a high ranking member dependent on a low ranking member.-Mr. Lamborghini, during WW2, was the first person on the island to receive the repair manuals to tanks and cars, which he memorized then destroyed.-Occupations that are high in demand and low in supply have more power to negotiate higher salaries, lighter loads, and other benefits.3. Nonsubstitutable-There is a decrease of dependency if there are substitutes.Influence Power Tactics1. Legitimacy- relying on one's authority position or stressing that a request is in accordance with organizational policies or rules2. Rational persuasion- presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate that a request is reasonable3. Inspirational appeals- developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target's values, needs, hopes, inspirations4. Consultation- increasing the target's motivation and support by involving him or her in deciding how the plan or change will be done5. Exchange- rewarding the target with benefits or favor in exchange for a request6. Personal appeals- asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty7. Ingratiation- using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request8. Pressure- using warnings, repeated demands, and threats9. Coalitions- enlisting the aid of other people to persuade the target or using the support of others as a reason for the target to agree-You are more likely to be effective when you use/begin with softer tactics.-Soft tactics include: personal and inspirational appeals, rational persuasion, and consultation-Hard tactics include: exchange, coalitions, pressure-Example of an overt form of sexual harassment: unwanted physical touching2-When employees convert their power into action, they are said to be engaged in politics.-Legitimate politics: normal everyday politics; aka complaining to you supervisor, bypassing the chain of command, forming coalitions, obstructing organizational policies or decisions through inaction or excessive adherence to rules, and developing contacts outside the organization through one's professional activities-Illegitimate political behavior: violates the implied rules of the game; aka sabotage, whistle-blowing, and symbolic protests such as wearing unorthodox clothing, and groups of employee calling in sick at the same time-When facts don't speak for themselves, politics flourish.-Politicking is when people use whatever influence they can to taint the facts of an ambiguous decision to support their goals and interests.-Employees who are high self-monitors, possess an internal locus of control, and have a high need for power are more likely to engage in political behavior (including the Machiavellian personality- will to manipulate and desire for power).-Organizations are made up of individuals and groups with different values, goals, and interests; and therefore sets up the potential for conflict over resources.Defense Behaviors1. Avoiding action: overconforming, buck passing, playing dumb, stretching, stalling2. Avoiding blame: buffing, playing safe, justifying, scapegoating, misrepresenting3. Avoiding change: prevention, self-protection-Most likely to engage in impression management: the high self-monitors who are good at reading situations and molding their appearances and behavior to fit each situation.-Impression management is used to distort information to make a favorable impression.-Impression Management Techniques:1. Conformity2. Excuses3. Apologies- admitting responsibility for an undesirable event and simultaneously seeking to get a pardon for the action 4. Self-Promotion5. Flattery6.


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