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FSU MAN 3240 - Chapter 4: Personality and Values

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MAN3240 Test #2Chapter 4: Personality and ValuesChapter 5: Perception and Individual Decision MakingChapter 6: Motivation ConceptsMAN3240 Test #2Chapter 4: Personality and ValuesPERSONALITY - refers to dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a persons whole psychological system- Looks at AGGREGATE whole- Definition by Gordon Alport = the dynamic organization within the individualof those psychophysical systems that determines his unique adjustments to his environment o Sum total ways in which you interact and reacto “measurable traits”- 2 determinants of personality: o heredity factors determined at conception ex: physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition, reflexes, energy level, biological rhythms influenced completely or partially by your parents 3 types of research support this: 1) genetic underpinnings of behavior and children (even shyness, fear, and aggression can be linked to heredity!) 2) study of twins separated at birth (drove same car, same dog names, same cigarettes, similar vacation spot) 3) consistency of job satisfaction (alluded that stability due to something inherent in people)o environment culture  establishes norms/attitudes/values passed along- ex: North Americans being MORE ambitious thru themes of industriousness, success and competition THAN other cultures who emphasize family over career personality changes in response to situations  job interview, church, etc- personality traits: o = enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavioro ex: shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, loyal, ambitiouso much focus on this bc believed that management can use personality tests to screen job candidates and improve employee job performanceo 2 trait approaches: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - most widely used- 100 questions- asks people how they usually act in situations1- categorized as:- extraverted vs introverted: outgoing vs quiet/shy- sensing vs intuitive: practical/routine/detailed vs unconscious processes/big picture- thinking vs feeling: reason/logic vs personal values/emotions- judging vs perceiving: control/ordered vs flexible/spontaneous- then combined into 16 personality types!- Argument against it is that you are forcing people into a category when you really might be right in between extraverted and introverted The Big Five Model - Extraversion – comfort level with relationships- Agreeableness – propensity to defer to others- Conscientiousness – measure of reliability *main indicator- Emotional stability – ability withstand stress (+ or -)- Openness to experience – range of interests and fascination with noveltyo 3 measurement approaches : self report survey- by the individual, most common observer ratings surveys projective measures (Rorschach Inkblot Test – analyzing inkblots and Thematic Apperception Test – stories with pictures)- not effective! Not used often!OTHER PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES:- core self evaluation – degree to which individuals like or dislike themselves,whether they see themselves as capable and effective and whether they feel they are in control of their environment or powerless over their environment, measured in + or –, determined by:o self esteem – individuals degree of liking or disliking themselves and the degree to which they think they are worthy/unworthy as a persono locus of control – the degree to which people believe that they are masters of their own fate internals – believe that they control what happens to them externals – believe what happens to them is controlled by outside forces like fate or chance- Machiavellianism – “mach”, degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify meanso High machs  manipulate more, win more, persuade others more- Narcissism – the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement2o Study showed: narcissists THOUGHT they were better leaders than their colleagues, they were ACTUALLY worse- Self monitoring – personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factorso High  capable of presenting totally different personas such as publicvs privateo Low  cant disguise themselves like that ^^- Risk taking – willingness to take chanceso DONALD TRUMP = huge risk taker o Can be good/bad in different situations- Type A Personality – aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and if necessary…against the opposing efforts of other things/peopleo Highly prized in north American culture, moderate/high stress levelso Always moving (and moving fast), impatient, multi-tasker, bad with leisure time, obsessed with numberso TYPE B IS OPPOSITE  no time urgency, not obliged to discuss achievements, play for fun/relaxation - Proactive Personality – people who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs PERSONALITY AND NATIONAL CULTURE:- Factors appear in almost all cross cultural studies- Differs based on factors of country – like social framework, individualistic - No common personality types for a given countryVALUES - = basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence ispersonally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence- what is right, good, desirable- value system – hierarchy based on ranking of an individuals values in terms of their intensity- tend to be stable and enduring- very important to study of OB  help in understanding peoples attitudes, perceptions and motivations - 2 approaches to classifying values o Rokeach Value Survey: 2 sets of values  terminal: desirable end states of existence, the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime, instrumental: preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values o Contemporary Work Cohorts  4 groups, generations US workforce Not universally applied or super concrete Supported by the fact that values change over generations 3VALUES ACROSS CULTURES:Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Geert Hofstede (interviewed IBM workers worldwide) found managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national


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