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Management Exam 4 StudyguideLectures 10-12Chapters 13,15,16,18Chapter 13Power-A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that b acts in accordance with A’s wishes Dependency-B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires(Things that control dependency) - Importance - Scarcity- Non-substitutability Formal Power-is based on an individual’s position in an organization.- Coercive Power-A power base that is dependent of fear of the negative results from failing to comply - Reward Power-Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable - Legitimate Power-The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organizationPersonal Power-Influence derived from an individual’s characteristics(More effective than formal power)- Expert Power-Influence based on special skills or knowledge- Referent Power-Influence based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits Power Tactics-Ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions 1. Legitimacy-Relying on your authority position or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules2. Rational Persuasion- Presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable3. Inspirational Appeals-Developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target’s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations4. Consultation-Increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in deciding how you will accomplish your plan5. Exchange-Rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for following a request6. Personal Appeals- Asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty 7. Ingratiation-Using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request8. Pressure-Using warnings, repeated demands, and threats9. Coalitions-Enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agreePolitical Skill-the ability to influence others in such a way as to enhance one’s objectives Sexual Harassment-Any unwanted activity of a sexual nature that affects an individual’s employment and creates a hostile work environment Organizational Politics- Focus on the use of power to affect decision making in an organization or on self-serving and organizationally unsanctioned behaviorsPolitical Behavior-Activities that are not required as part of a person’s formal role in the organization but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization - Causes of political behavior Individual factors-Personality traits, needs, and other factors likely to be related to political behavior Traitso High self-monitorso Internal locus of controlo High need for power Organizational factors-The less trust within the organization, the higher the level of political behaviorLegitimate Political Behavior- Normal everyday politicsIllegitimate Political Behavior- Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the gameDefensive Behaviors-Reactive and protective3 behaviors to avoid action, blame, or change- Avoiding Action Over conforming Buck Passing Playing Dumb Stretching Stalling- Avoiding Blame Buffing Playing Safe Justifying Scapegoating Misrepresenting- Avoiding Change Prevention Self-ProtectionImpression Management- The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them- Conformity- Favors- Excuses- Apologies- Self-Promotion- Enhancement- Flattery ExemplificationChapter15Organizational Structure- The way in which job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated- Work Specialization-the degree to which tasks in an organization are subdivided into separate jobs- Departmentalization-The basis by which jobs in an organization are grouped together- Chain of Command-The unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom Authority-The rights in a managerial position to give orders and to expect the orders to be obeyed Unity of Command-The idea that a subordinate should have only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible- Span of Control- The number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct- Centralization-The degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in an organization Centralized-top managers make all the decisions, and lower level managers carry out their directives Decentralized- decision making is pushed down to the managers closest to the action- Formalization- The degree to which jobs within an organization are standardized- The amount of freedom employees have at jobs, highly formalized have strict procedures and low formalizedhave more freedom on how and when to do things.Simple Structure-An organization structure characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority centralized in a single person, and little formalization Bureaucracy- An organization structure with highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization, very formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow spans of control, and decision making that follows the chain of commandMatrix Structure- An organization structure that creates dual lines of authority and combines functional and product departmentalizationVirtual Organization- A small, core organization that outsources major business functions Boundaryless Organization-An organization that seeks to eliminate the chain of command, have limitless spans of control and replace departments with empowered teamsMechanistic Model-A structure characterized by extensive departmentalization, high formalization, a limited information network, and centralizationOrganic Model- A structure that is flat, uses cross-hierarchical and cross-functional teams, has low formalization, possesses a comprehensive information network, and relies on participative decision making Innovation Strategy-A strategy that emphasizes and introduction of major new products and services Cost-Minimization Strategy- A strategy that emphasizes tight cost controls, avoidance of unnecessary innovation of marketing expenses, and price cutting.Imitation Strategy- A strategy that seeks to move into new products or new markets only after their viability has already been


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