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FSU MAN 3240 - Test 4- Organizational Behavior

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Test 4- Organizational Behavior Power- A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. Power is a capacity or potentialPower is a function of dependency. The greater B’s dependence on A, the greater A’s power in the relationship. Power can be divided into two general groupings- formal and personal. Under each are more specific categories. Formal Power- is based on an individuals position in an organization. Coercive power- depends on fear of the negative results from failing to comply. Includes verbal and physical threats. Can also result from holding key information.Reward power- the opposite of coercive power. People comply because it produces positive benefits. Can be financial rewards or non financial rewards, including works shifts and sales territories. Legitimate power- the power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization. Represents formal authority control and use organizational resources based on structural position in the organization. Personal Power- comes from an individuals unique characteristics. There are two bases of personal power- expertise and respect and admiration of others. Expert power- is influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge. We depend on experts to achieve personal goals. Ex: Your physician- you usually take his/hers advice Referent Power- based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. Develops out of admiration and desire to be like that person. Ex: You want to please someone that you admire/ look up to Ex: LeBron James Which bases of power are the most effective? Research suggests pretty clearly that the personal sources of power are most effective. Both expert and referent power are positively related to employees’ satisfaction with supervision, their organizational commitment, and their performance, whereas rewardand legitimate power seem to be unrelated to these outcomes. Coercive power can backfire in that it is negatively related to employee satisfaction. Power tactics- ways in which individuals translate power bases into specific actions. Nine Power Tactics: 1. legitimacy- relying on your authority position or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules. 2. Rational persuasion- presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable. 3. Inspirational appeals- developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target’s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations. 4. Consultation- increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in deciding how you will accomplish your plan. 5. Exchange- rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for following a request 6. Personal appeals- asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty.7. Ingratiation- using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request 8. Pressure- using warnings, repeated demands, and threats. 9. Coalitions- enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agree. Political skill- ability to influence others to enhance their own objectives. Politically skilled people are effective in using ALL of the 9 influence tactics. Ability to exert influence without others detecting it and in high stake situations. Organizational politics- the use of power to affect decision making in the organization When employees in organizations covert their power into action, we describe them as being engaged in politics. Political behavior- activities that are not required as part of a person’s formal role in the organization but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. Political behavior is outside specified job requirements. Efforts to influence the goals, criteria, or process used for decision making. Legitimate political behavior- Normal everyday politics. Ex: complaining to your boss, by-passing the chain of command, forming coalitions and obstructing organizational policies or decisions through inaction or excessive adherence to rulesIllegitimate political behavior- extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game. Ex: protesting, whistle-blowing, and sabotage. Impression management- the process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them. Not everyone is concerned with IM. HIGH SELF MONITORS engage in IM. Low self monitors present images of themselves that areconsistent with their personalities regardless of the situation. High self monitors are good at reading a situation and molding their appearances and behavior to fit each situation. Organizational Structure- the way in which job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. Six key elements: work specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, centralization and decentralization, and formalization. Work Specialization or division of labor- the degree to which tasks in an organization are subdivided into separate jobs. Work can be performed more efficiently if employees are allowed to specialize. The purpose is to divide a job into a number of steps, each completed by a separate individual. Ex: Henry Ford’s assembly line Departmentalization- the basis by which jobs in an organization are grouped together. Grouped so common tasks can be coordinated. Usually done by functions performed- a hospitals departments devoted to research, surgery, intensive care, accounting, and so forth. Companies can also departmentalize by product or service, geography, and customer type. Chain of Command- an unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom. *Included in the chain of command is unity of command and authority.*Unity of command- the idea that a subordinate should have only one superior to whom he or she is directly responsible.*Authority- the rights inherent in a managerial position to give orders and to expect the orders to be obeyed. *Today, a low level employee can access information in seconds that was available only to top managers a generation ago. Span of Control- the number of subordinates a manager can efficiently and effectively direct. Important because it determines the number of levels and managers an organization has. All


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