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FSU MAN 3240 - Chapter 13: Power and Politics

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Chapter 13: Power and PoliticsPower: capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes5 Power Bases: 3 formal, 2 personal• Formal Power (based on individuals position within an organization)o Coercive - power base that is dependent on fear of the negative results from failing to complyo Reward - Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuableo Legitimate - power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization• Personal Power (derived from an individual’s characteristics)o Personal Power is found to be more effective than Formal Power Expert – Influence based on special skills or knowledge Referent - Influence based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traitsMain difference between Power and Leadership = power does NOT require compatibility of goalsDependence: B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.• The most important aspect of power is that it is a function of dependence• Dependence is created when the resource you control is:o Important o Scarce o Non-substitutable Power Tactics (ways people translate power bases into specific action)• Legitimacy - relying on your authority position or saying a request accords with organizational policies or rules.• Rational persuasion - presenting logical arguments and factual evidence to demonstrate a request is reasonable.• Inspirational appeals - developing emotional commitment by appealing to a target’s values, needs, hopes, and aspirations.• Consultation - increasing the target’s support by involving him or her in deciding how you will accomplish your plan.• Exchange - rewarding the target with benefits or favors in exchange for following a request.• Personal appeals - asking for compliance based on friendship or loyalty.• Ingratiation - using flattery, praise, or friendly behavior prior to making a request.• Pressure - using warnings, repeated demands, and threats.• Coalitions - enlisting the aid or support of others to persuade the target to agreePolitics• Political Skill - The ability to influence others in such a way as to enhance one’s objectives• Political Behavior - Activities that are not required but that attempt to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organizationo Depending on Point of view, some may see actions as “political” where others view the same action as “effective management”• Politicking = people within organizations will use whatever influence they can to taint the facts to support their goals and interests• FACTORS contributing to political behavioro Individual  High self-monitors Internal locus of control High Mach personality Organizational investment Perceived job alternatives Expectations of successo Organizational Reallocation of resources Promotion opportunities Low trust Role ambiguity Unclear performance evaluation system Zero-sum reward practices Democratic decision making High performance pressures Self-serving senior managers• Responses to political behavior in the workplaceo Decreased job satisfactiono Increased anxiety and stresso Increased turnovero Reduced performanceImpression Management = process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them• Defense Behaviors = Reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action, blame, or changeo Avoiding Action Over-conforming - strictly interpreting your responsibility by saying things like “The rules clearly state . . . ” or “This is the way we’ve always done it.” Buck passing - transferring responsibility to someone else. Playing dumb - avoiding a task by falsely pleading ignorance or inability. Stretching - prolonging a task so that one person appears to be occupied Stalling - appearing to be more or less supportive publicly while doing little or nothing privately.o Avoiding Blame Buffing - “covering your rear.” Practice of rigorously documenting activity to project an image of competence and thoroughness. Playing safe - evading situations that may reflect unfavorably. Includes:• taking projects with a high probability of success• having risky decisions approved by superiors• qualifying expressions of judgment• taking neutral positions in conflicts. Justifying - developing explanations that lessen one’s responsibility for a negative outcome or apologizing to demonstrate remorse Scapegoating - placing the blame for a negative outcome on external factors that are not entirely blameworthy. Misrepresenting - manipulation of information by distortion, embellishment, deception, selective presentation, or obfuscation.o Avoiding Change Prevention - trying to prevent a threatening change from occurring. Self-protection - acting in ways to protect one’s self-interest during change by guarding information or other resources.• Impression Management Techniqueso Conformityo Favorso Excuseso Apologieso Self-promotiono Enhancemento Flatteryo ExemplificationChapter 15: Foundations of Organizational CultureOrganizational Structure is how tasks are divided, grouped, and coordinated• The SIX elements of Organization Structure 1. Work Specialization - degree to which activities in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs2. Departmentalization - basis by which jobs are grouped (often by function, product, geography, or type of customer)3. Chain of command - line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest level and clarifies who reports to whom4. Span of control – how many employees a manager can effectively manage, which largely determines number of levels and managers an organization has5. Centralization and decentralization - degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization Centralized organizations = top managers make all decisions Decentralized = decision making pushed down to the manager closest to action6. Formalization - degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized Highly Formalized = employees have basically no freedom in their work Low Formalized = employees have a lot of freedom in their workCommon organizational Designs• The Simple Structureo characterized by a low degree of departmentalization, wide spans of control, authority


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