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UMD BSCI 105 - Final Bio Review

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Final Bio Review- Lecture 1 (Chapter 1)o Nothing specifico Skip Chapter 1- Chemistry in Water (Chapter 2 & 3)o Election shells, orbitals, valenceo Polarity, shapeo Bonds Covalent Ionic Electronegativity Hydrogen bonds because of electronegativityo Chemical Reactions Reactivity & Valence Making & Breaking bonds Reversible Equilibriumo Properties of Water Hydrogen Bonding- Cohesion- Adhesion- Surface tension- High specific heat- amount of heat needed before something begins to change to gas- High heat of vaporizationo Evaporative cooling- pH (Acids & Bases) o Carbon: The backbone of organic molecules- Diversity, Shape- Isomerso Structuralo Geometrico Enantiomerso Functional Groups- Macromolecules (Chapter 5)o Monomers & Polymers  Dehydration Synthesis/Hydrolysis Carbohydrates (Sugars)- Monosaccharides, Polysaccharides- Glycosidic linkages (Alpha v. Beta) Lipids- Triglycerides (Glycerol + Fatty Acids)- Phospholipids***o Why are they good for making membrane?- Steroids Proteins - Amino acids, polypeptides- Peptide bond- Levels of structure*o Primary, secondary, tertiary, quarternary- Denaturation Nucleic acids- Nucleotides, polynucleotides- Purines, pyrimidines- DNA, RNA- Deoxyribose, ribose- Cell Structure and Function (Chapter 6)o Endomembrane System Components Smooth ER, nucleus, ect.o Organelles Chloroplast, mitochondria, peroxisome (not endomembrane)o Cytoskeletal components Microtubulues- Tubulin Micofilaments- Actin Intermediate filaments- Keratin o Extracellular matrixo Cell junctions Tight junctions Desmosomes- staple cell togethero Gap junctions- exchange cytoplasm, connect cells Plasmodesmata- Cell Membranes (Chapter 7)o Fluid mosaic model Phospholipid bilayer Saturation Cholesterolo Osmosis & Diffusion Semipermeable Hypertonic, Hypotonic Gradientso Transport Passive Transport Active Transport Bulk Transport- Cell Signaling (Chapter 11)o Stages of signalingo Receptors Gated ion channels G-protein coupled receptors Receptor tyrosine kinases Nuclear receptorso Signal transduction cascadeso Second Messengers cAMP- Adenylyl cyclase- makes amp IP3, DAG Calcium- Cell Cycle (Chapter 12)o Eukaryotic Cell Division Mitosis- Division of nucleus Cytokinesis- Division of cell G1 Checkpoint- Ready to divide? G2 Checkpoint- DNA duplicated? M Checkpoint- Ready to split? Checkpoint Regulation- Cyclins- Cyclin dependent kinase- Molecule of Inheritance (Chapter 16)o Transformation DNA transforms bacteria, not proteino Watson-Crick Model of DNA Double stranded helix Strands anti-parallel Purine-pyrimidine o Semi-conservative DNA replicationo Replication forks KNOW DIAGRAM Topoisomerase Helicase Primase DNA Pol III DNA Pol I Ligase Leading, lagging- what’s the difference?- Genome Evolution (Chapter 21) Don’t have to knowo Similar gene numbers, different DNA- Transcription/Translation (Chapter 17) Importanto The central dogmao The triplet code Codons Degenerateo Transcription/How it works RNA polymeraseo mRNA processing Splicing- intron, exon Capping/Tailingo Ribosome Functiono The big picture (this big diagram)- Gene Expression (Chapter 18)o Operons- lac operon, inducible

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