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SC BIOL 425 - ch01-07

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Chapter 1: Botany: An IntroductionTrue-False Questions1. Evolution of Plants; p. 2; moderate; ans: TProteinoid microspheres provide evidence that organic molecules in water can aggregate into cell-like structures2. Evolution of Plants; p. 3; moderate; ans: FThe first cell-like structures were able to use inorganic compounds as a source of energy.3. Evolution of Plants; p. 3; easy; ans: FMost likely, autotrophs evolved before heterotrophs.4. Evolution of Plants; p. 4; easy; ans: TAccording to the fossil record, the appearance of photosynthetic organisms was associated with an increase in free oxygen in the atmosphere.5. Evolution of Plants; pp. 4–5; moderate; ans: TThe increase in atmospheric oxygen enabled organisms to obtain more energy from organic molecules by breaking them down via respiration.6. Evolution of Plants; p. 5; easy; ans: FEukaryotic cells evolved before prokaryotic cells.7. Evolution of Plants; p. 5; easy; ans: TArchaeans are a group of prokaryotes.8. Evolution of Plants; p. 5; moderate; ans: FCarbon dioxide is the limiting factor for plant growth in the seas.9. Evolution of Plants; p. 5; moderate; ans: TAs multicellular organisms evolved in coastal environments, food-conducting tissues developed to connect photosynthesizing and nonphotosynthesizing body parts.10. Evolution of Plants; p. 6; moderate; ans: TIn plants, water moves in a continuous stream from roots to stems to leaves.11. Evolution of Plants; p. 6; moderate; ans: FStomata are specialized guard cells in the epidermis of leaves.12. Evolution of Plants; p. 6; easy; ans: TPlants that contain xylem and phloem are called vascular plants.13. Evolution of Plants; p. 6; easy; ans: FPrimary growth results in a thickening of the stem and root. 14. Evolution of Plants; p. 6; difficult; ans: TA plant must first exhibit primary growth before it can exhibit secondary growth.15. Evolution of Communities; p. 7; difficult; ans: FAn example of an ecosystem is a tree and all the animals that live on and in it.16. Evolution of Communities; p. 9; moderate; ans: FIn an ecosystem, elements and energy are recycled.17. Evolution of Communities; p. 9; moderate; ans: FThe oxygen released by photosynthesis is required by heterotrophs, but not by autotrophs, for energy-producing metabolic activities.18. Appearance of Human Beings; p. 11; easy; ans: TOne effect of chlorofluorocarbons has been to deplete the ozone layer.Chapter 2: The Molecular Composition of Plant CellsTrue-False Questions1. Introduction; p. 15; easy; ans: TOnly six elements make up 99 percent of the weight of all living matter.2. Organic Molecules; p. 15; moderate; ans: FAll organic molecules contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.3. Carbohydrates; p. 16; easy; ans: FPentoses and hexoses have a carbonyl group in the ring form but not the chain form. 4. Carbohydrates; p. 17; easy; ans: FPlants break down their carbohydrate reserves and transport starch to the site where it is needed.5. Carbohydrates; p. 17; easy; ans: TStarch and glycogen consist of alpha-glucose subunits, whereas cellulose is made up entirely of beta-glucose.6. Carbohydrates; p. 18 moderate; ans: TPectins and hemicelluloses constitute the matrix of the plant cell wall in which cellulose microfibrils are embedded.7. Lipids; p. 19; easy; ans: F In contrast to unsaturated fatty acids, saturated fatty acids have one or more kinks that prevent close packing.8. Lipids; p. 20; moderate; ans: TIn a phospholipid, the phosphate group is attached directly to the glycerol backbone.9. Lipids; p. 22; moderate; ans: TSteroids have hormonal functions in plants and animals.10. Proteins; p. 24; easy; ans: TA peptide bond is a linkage between an amino group and a carboxyl group.11. Proteins; p. 24; moderate; ans: FAll proteins have primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures.12. Proteins; p. 25; easy; ans: TThe denaturation of a protein involves a disruption in its tertiary structure.13. Nucleic Acids; p. 26; easy; ans: TDNA molecules are the largest macromolecules found in cells.14. Nucleic Acids; p. 27; difficult; ans: FEnergy is released in the reaction in which a phosphate group is linked to ADP forming ATP. 15. Secondary Metabolites; p. 28; easy; ans: TAllelopathy is the process by which a chemical produced by one plant inhibits the growth of competitors.16. Secondary Metabolites; p. 29; difficult; ans: FEssential oils, components of plant fragrances, are phenolic compounds.17. Secondary Metabolites; p. 32; moderate; ans: FIt is thought that lignin first evolved as a support molecule and only later functioned as an antibacterial and antifungal agent.Chapter 3: The Plant Cell and the Cell CycleTrue-False Questions1. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes; p. 37; easy; ans: FProkaryotic cells are characterized by having a nucleus.2. Nucleus; p. 41; easy; ans: FDifferent types of organisms have the same number of chromosomes in their somatic cells.3. Nucleus; p. 41; easy; ans: TIf a plant has 50 chromosomes in each of its somatic cells, then each of its gametes will have 25 chromosomes.4. Ribosomes; p. 41; easy; ans: TPolysomes are aggregations of ribosomes that are actively engaged in protein synthesis.5. Peroxisomes; p. 46; moderate; ans: FGlyoxysomes are peroxisomes involved in the conversion of sucrose to fat during seed germination.6. Vacuoles; p. 46; easy; ans: TMost of the increase in size of a plant cell results from enlargement of the vacuole.7. Golgi Apparatus; p. 49; difficult; ans: FA protein destined for secretion at the cell surface is packaged at the trans-Golgi network into coated vesicles rather than smooth-surfaced vesicles.8. Cytoskeleton; p. 50; easy; ans: TThe cytoskeleton of plant cells consists of microtubules, actin filaments, and, in some cases, intermediate filaments.9. Flagella and Cilia; p. 52; easy; ans: TFlagella and cilia grow out of basal bodies.10. Cell Wall; p. 54; moderate; ans: FThe presence of extensins in the cell wall appears to make the wall more extensible. 11. Cell Wall; p. 54; moderate; ans: TA compound middle lamella may consist of the middle lamella, the two adjacent primary walls, and the first layer of the secondary wall of each cell.12. Cell Wall; p. 56; easy; ans: FIn cells that enlarge in all directions more or less uniformly, microfibrils have been deposited perpendicular to the axis of elongation.13. The Cell Cycle; p. 58; moderate; ans: FIn terms of cellular activity, interphase is best described as a period of dormancy.14. The Cell Cycle; p. 59; easy;


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