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SC BIOL 425 - Chapter 26

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Chapter 26: Secondary Growth in StemsMultiple-Choice Questions1. Introduction; p. 614; easy; ans: dWhich of the following statements about secondary growth is FALSE?a. It results from the activity of the vascular cambium and the cork cambium.b. It is responsible for the increase in girth of a plant.c. It can occur simultaneously with primary growth.d. Most monocots exhibit considerable secondary growth.e. Herbaceous plants undergo little or no secondary growth.2. Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials; p. 615; difficult; ans: bIn the southern hemisphere, biennials:a. are represented by weeds.b. are annuals.c. form seeds and flowers in the same growing season.d. usually become woody.e. complete their life cycle in two calendar years.3. Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials; p. 615; moderate; ans: cWhich of the following statements about woody perennials is FALSE?a. Some form dormant rhizomes or bulbs during unfavorable seasons.b. They include trees and shrubs.c. Some flower before they become adult plants.d. Some are deciduous.e. Some live for many years.4. The Vascular Cambium; p. 615; easy; ans: d The cells that comprise the vascular cambium are the ___________ and the ______________.a. axial rays; vascular raysb. axial rays; fusiform initialsc. vascular rays; fusiform initialsd. fusiform initials; ray initialse. vascular rays; ray initials5. The Vascular Cambium; p. 615; moderate; ans: eCambial initials produce ______ cells toward the outside and ______ cells toward the inside.a. ray; phloemb. phloem; phloemc. xylem; xylemd. xylem; raye. phloem; xylem6. The Vascular Cambium; p. 615; moderate; ans: dIn secondary tissues, the axial system consists of ______ cells and the radial system consists of ______ cells.a. parenchyma; phloemb. parenchyma; xylem c. xylem; phloemd. xylem and phloem; raye. ray; xylem and phloem7. The Vascular Cambium; p. 615; moderate; ans: bWhich of the following statements about vascular rays is FALSE?a. They are composed largely of parenchyma cells.b. They serve as barriers to the movement of food substances and water.c. They store starch, proteins, and lipids.d. They synthesize secondary products.e. They are variable in length.8. The Vascular Cambium; p. 615; moderate; ans: dThe cambial zone consists of:a. the fusiform initials only.b. the ray initials only.c. the fusiform initials and ray initials only.d. the fusiform initials, the ray initials, and their immediate derivatives only.e. the fusiform initials, the ray initials, their immediate derivatives, and the vascular rays.9. The Vascular Cambium; p. 615; moderate; ans: bAs the vascular cambium continues to divide, the cambial cells:a. are displaced inward.b. are displaced outward.c. remain in their original location.d. cease to divide periclinally.e. cease to divide anticlinally.10.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 617; easy; ans: aInterfascicular cambium arises:a. in the pith rays.b. between the primary xylem and primary phloem.c. in the cortex.d. between the primary xylem and secondary xylem.e. between the primary phloem and secondary phloem.11.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 617; moderate; ans: eWhich of the following statements about secondary growth is FALSE?a. The secondary vascular tissues form a cylindrical shape.b. Vascular rays extend radially through the secondary xylem and secondary phloem.c. Primary phloem fibers remain intact longer than other primary phloem cells.d. The primary phloem is pushed outward.e. Most plants produce more secondary phloem than secondary xylem.12.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; pp. 617–619; moderate; ans: dSecondary growth in the Tilia stem is different from that in the Sambucus stem because in the Tilia stem:a. more secondary xylem than secondary phloem is formed.b. more secondary phloem than secondary xylem is formed.c. only a small amount of secondary tissue is produced.d. dilated phloem rays are formed.e. phloem fibers are formed.13.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 619; moderate; ans: eThe periderm consists of:a. phellem only.b. phellogen only.c. phelloderm only.d. phellem and phellogen only.e. phellem and phellogen, and phelloderm.14.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 619; moderate; ans: aIn most woody plants, the first periderm usually arises in the:a. cortex.b. epidermis.c. primary phloem.d. primary xylem.e. pith.15.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 619; easy; ans: d Which of the following is/are dead at maturity?a. phellogenb. fusiform initialsc. ray initialsd. phelleme. vascular rays16.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 619; moderate; ans: c At the end of the first year’s secondary growth, immediately inside the secondary phloem is the:a. primary phloem.b. periderm.c. vascular cambium.d. cortex.e. secondary xylem.17.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 619; moderate; ans: e At the end of the first year’s secondary growth, immediately outside the primary xylem is the:a. primary phloem.b. secondary phloem.c. vascular cambium.d. pith.e. secondary xylem.18.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 619; easy; ans: bLenticels function primarily in:a. water transport.b. gas exchange.c. mineral uptake.d. protection.e. hormone production.19.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; pp. 619–620; moderate; ans: aWhich of the following statements about lenticels is FALSE?a. They are found only on roots and stems.b. They are portions of the periderm.c. They contain numerous intercellular spaces.d. In stems they generally arise below stomata.e. On the surface of stems they appear as raised areas.20.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 620; easy; ans: cAt the end of the first year’s growth, bark is composed of:a. periderm.b. cork.c. all tissues outside the vascular cambium.d. only secondary tissues.e. only primary tissues.21.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 620; moderate; ans: bWhich of the following could never be part of the bark?a. cortexb. secondary xylemc. primary phloemd. secondary phloeme. phelloderm22.Effect of Secondary Growth on the Primary Body of the Stem; p. 621; moderate; ans: dAfter the first periderm is formed, additional periderms originate from ______ cells.a. epidermalb. pithc. corticald. phloem parenchymae. xylem


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