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SC BIOL 425 - Chapter 11

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Chapter 11: The Process of EvolutionMultiple-Choice Questions1. Darwin’s Theory; p. 210; easy; ans: c______ warned of the hazards of increased human population growth.a. Charles Lyellb. Gregor Mendelc. Thomas Malthusd. Charles Darwine. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck2. Darwin’s Theory; p. 211; easy; ans: aHumans breed plants and animals through the process of:a. artificial selection.b. natural selection.c. survival of the fittest.d. evolution.e. mutation.3. The Concept of the Gene Pool; p. 211; moderate; ans: b______ is the sum total of all the alleles of all the genes in a population.a. The genotypeb. The gene poolc. Evolutiond. Population geneticse. A species4. The Concept of the Gene Pool; p. 212; easy; ans: eWhen biologists speak of the “fitness” of an organism they are referring to:a. its strength.b. its beauty.c. its resistance to disease.d. the size of its gene pool.e. the number of its surviving offspring.5. The Behavior of Genes in Populations: The Hardy-Weinberg Law; p. 212; difficult; ans: eWhich of the following statements concerning the Hardy-Weinberg Law is FALSE?a. It explains why dominant alleles do not drive out recessives.b. It explains why dominant and recessive alleles can remain in a population.c. It provides a standard for detecting evolutionary change.d. It provides a standard against which we can measure changes in allele frequencies.e. It involves conditions that are usually met in natural populations.6. The Behavior of Genes in Populations: The Hardy-Weinberg Law; p. 212; moderate; ans: d Which of the following is NOT a necessary condition for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?a. no natural selectionb. isolation from other populationsc. no mutationsd. nonrandom matinge. large population size7. The Behavior of Genes in Populations: The Hardy-Weinberg Law; p. 212; easy; ans: bWhich is the mathematical representation of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?a. p2 + q2 = 0b. p2+ 2pq + q2 = 1c. p2+ q2 = 1d. 2pq + (p2 + q2) = 1e. 2pq + 2(pq2) = p2 + q2 = 18. The Behavior of Genes in Populations: The Hardy-Weinberg Law; p. 212; moderate; ans: cIn a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of a particular recessive allele is 40 percent. What proportion of the population is homozygous for the dominant allele?a. 60 percentb. 40 percentc. 36 percentd. 16 percente. 6 percent9. The Behavior of Genes in Populations: The Hardy-Weinberg Law; p. 212; moderate; ans: bIn a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of a particular dominant allele is 20 percent. What percentage of the individuals in this population will be heterozygous for that trait?a. 16 percentb. 32 percentc. 42 percentd. 64 percente. 80 percent10. The Behavior of Genes in Populations: The Hardy-Weinberg Law; p. 212; easy; ans:aIn a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of a particular dominant allele is 70 percent, and the frequency of the recessive allele is 30 percent. In the next generation, the frequency of the dominant allele will be ______ percent and the frequency of the recessive allele will be ______ percent.a. 70; 30b. 60; 40c. 50; 50d. 40: 60e. 30; 7011. The Agents of Change; p. 213; moderate; ans: cThe raw material for evolutionary change is provided by:a. sexual reproduction.b. asexual reproduction.c. mutations.d. meiosis.e. mitosis.12. The Agents of Change; p. 213; moderate; ans: cIn a population, ______ results from the immigration or emigration of individuals.a. mutationb. genetic driftc. gene flowd. natural selectione. nonrandom mating13. The Agents of Change; p. 213; difficult; ans: cIn a population of 1000 plants, the frequency of the a allele is 5 percent. Suppose a fire causes the loss of 500 individuals who are homozygous for the A allele. In this case the fire caused the frequency of a to change from ______ to ______.a. 5; 1b. 0.05; 1.0c. 0.05; 0.1d. 0.5; 1.0e. 0.5; 0.114. The Agents of Change; p. 213; moderate; ans: bBy definition, _______ is the term that refers to changes in a gene pool due to chance.a. mutationb. genetic driftc. gene flowd. natural selectione. nonrandom mating15. The Agents of Change; p. 214; moderate; ans: dAn example of ______ is when a single plant seed is carried by the wind to a remote island where it initiates a new population.a. nonrandom matingb. natural selectionc. fitnessd. the founder effecte. the bottleneck effect16. The Agents of Change; p. 214; moderate; ans: eAn example of ______ is when a forest fire destroys a large percentage of a population of trees.a. nonrandom matingb. natural selectionc. fitnessd. the founder effecte. the bottleneck effect17. The Agents of Change; p. 214; difficult; ans: cWhen plants heterozygous for a trait self-pollinate there will be a(n):a. decrease in the frequency of individuals homozygous recessive for that trait.b. decrease in the frequency of individuals homozygous dominant for that trait.c. decrease in the frequency of individuals heterozygous for that trait.d. increase in the frequency of individuals heterozygous for that trait.e. increase in the frequency of homozygous recessive individuals but a decrease in homozygous dominant individuals.18. Responses to Selection; p. 214; moderate; ans: aIn a population, natural selection:a. can preserve and promote variability.b. eliminates only the “less fit.”c. acts on the genotype.d. reduces genetic variability.e. reduces the potential for further evolution.19. Responses to Selection; pp. 215-216; difficult; ans: cAs an example of rapid evolutionary change, one variety of Agrostis grows much faster on tailings and dumps around abandoned lead mines than does another variety. What is the explanation for this?a. The high lead content of the soil causes an increase in the mutation rate.b. Lead stimulates the growth of plants.c. Selection has favored the development of the lead-resistant variety.d. Selection has favored the development of the lead-sensitive variety.e. Lead stimulates the production of poisons that protect the plants against predators.20. The Result of Natural Selection: Adaptation; p. 217; moderate; ans: dWhich of the following statements about adaptation is FALSE?a. It means a state of being adjusted to the environment.b. It means a particular characteristic that aids in the adjustment of an organism to its environment.c. It means an evolutionary process that produces organisms better suited to their environment.d. It is correlated with selective forces exerted by the


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