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SC BIOL 425 - Chapter 01

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Chapter 1 Botany: An Introduction1Chapter 1: Botany: An IntroductionMultiple-Choice Questions1. Introduction; p. 2; easy; ans: cThe process of photosynthesis results in the formation of two substances essential to our existence:a. chlorophyll and water.b. electrons and protons.c. sugar and oxygen.d. sugar and water.e. chlorophyll and oxygen.2. Evolution of Plants; p. 3; moderate; ans: dLife existed on Earth as early as ______ years ago.a. 300 to 400 thousandb. 3 to 4 millionc. 300 to 400 million d. 3 to 4 billione. 300 to 400 billion3. Evolution of Plants; p. 3; moderate; ans: cWhich of the following statements about stromatolites is FALSE?a. They contain layers of microorganisms.b. They contain sediment.c. They are fossil structures, with none alive today.d. They can be formed by cyanobacteria.e. They provide information about the earliest forms of life.4. Evolution of Plants; p. 4; moderate; ans: e On Mars, there is evidence for the presence of water in the form of______.a. ice only.b. liquid water onlyc. snow onlyd. ice and liquid water but not snowe. ice, liquid water and snow5. Evolution of Plants; p. 4; moderate; ans: aWhich of the following statements about proteinoid microspheres is FALSE?a. They are thought to be the first forms of life.b. They grow by the accumulation of additional proteinoid material.c. They are cell-like structures.d. They are assemblages of organic molecules.e. They can be produced in the laboratory. Chapter 1 Botany: An Introduction6. Evolution of Plants; p. 4; difficult; ans: bWhich of the following statements concerning primitive cells is FALSE?a. They used organic molecules to satisfy their energy requirements.b. They constructed new cells from organic molecules made via photosynthesis.c. They acquired the ability to grow.d. They acquired the ability to reproduce.e. They acquired the ability to pass on their characteristics to subsequent generations7. Evolution of Plants; p. 4: easy; ans: cA heterotroph:a. is a “self-feeder.”b. uses energy from the sun to make food.c. is exemplified by a fungus.d. makes its own energy-rich molecules from simple inorganic materials.e. is exemplified by algae.8. Evolution of Plants; pp. 4-5; moderate; ans: aWhich of the following statements about photosynthetic autotrophs is FALSE?a. They obtain their required organic compounds from external sources.b. They channel radiant energy into the biosphere.c. The word autotroph means “self-feeder.”d. They have a complex pigment system.e. An example of an autotroph is a plant.9. Evolution of Plants; p. 5; difficult; ans: eWhich of the following statements concerning the earliest photosynthetic organisms is FALSE?a. They were simple compared to plants.b. They were more complex than primitive heterotrophs.c. They had a complex pigment system.d. They had a way of storing energy in an organic molecule.e. They have been found in rocks 4 billion years old.10. Evolution of Plants; p. 5; easy; ans: bThe oxygen gas released in photosynthesis originates from:a. carbon dioxide.b. water.c. ozone.d. sugar.e. nitrates.Chapter 1 Botany: An Introduction11. Evolution of Plants; p. 5; moderate; ans: bAtmospheric levels of oxygen gas approached modern levels approximately ______ years ago.a. 5 billionb. 500 millionc. 50 milliond. 5 millione. 500 thousand12. Evolution of Plants; p. 5; easy; ans: dOzone in the outer layer of the atmosphere has important consequences for living things in that it:a. is a pollutant.b. is involved directly in respiration.c. aids in the aggregation of molecules.d. absorbs ultraviolet rays from sunlight.e. is used by autotrophs to make sugars.13. Evolution of Plants; p. 6; moderate ans: cRespiration refers to the process by which organisms:a. absorb carbon dioxide under aerobic conditions.b. absorb oxygen.under anaerobic conditions.c. break down molecules under aerobic conditions.d. break down molecules under anaerobic conditions.e. produce sugars under aerobic conditions.14. Evolution of Plants; p. 6; easy; ans: b Prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells in that prokaryotic cells: a. lack chromosomes.b. lack a nuclear envelope.c. contain mitochondria.d. contain chloroplasts.e. contain genetic material.15. Evolution of Plants; p. 6; easy; ans: aWhich are prokaryotic organisms?a. cyanobacteria and archaeab. oak trees and elephantsc. archaea and humansd. dandelions and animalse. bacteria and amoebas Chapter 1 Botany: An Introduction16. Evolution of Plants; p. 6; difficult; ans: eThe first cells on Earth were most likely:a. bacteria.b. autotrophs.c. eukaryotes.d. proteinoid microspheres.e. archaeans.17. Evolution of Plants; p. 6; difficult; ans: eWhich of the following is NOT an adaptation of photosynthetic organisms to rocky coasts?a. a multicellular bodyb. strong cell wallsc. structures to anchor their bodiesd. food-conducting tissuese. pigment systems18. Evolution of plants; p. 7; easy; ans: bThe function of the cuticle is:a. absorbing water.b. retarding water loss.c. anchoring the plant.d. providing support.e. carrying out photosynthesis.19. Evolution of Plants; p. 7; moderate; ans: cThe function of stomata is:a. providing support.b. anchoring the plant.c. regulating the exchange of gases.d. transporting food.e. adding cells to the plant body.20. Evolution of plants; p. 7; easy; ans: aWhich of the following statements concerning stomata is FALSE?.a. They form a waxy covering on all aboveground portions of the plant.b. They consist of a pair of guard cells.c. They are found in the epidermis.d. They help maintain a balance between water loss and oxygen and carbon dioxide requirements.e. They open and close.Chapter 1 Botany: An Introduction21. Evolution of Plants; p. 7; moderate; ans: eIn perennials, the ______ is most similar in function to the cuticle-covered epidermis of annuals.a. xylemb. phloemc. stomad. vascular cambiume. cork22. Evolution of Plants; p. 7; easy; ans: cWater is transported upward through the plant body in the:a. epidermis.b. cork.c. xylem.d. phloem.e. apical meristems.23. Evolution of Plants; p. 7; easy; ans: dThe food manufactured by photosynthesis is transported throughout the plant body in the:a. epidermis.b. cork.c. xylem.d. phloem.e. apical meristems.24. Evolution of Plants; p. 7; easy; ans: eThe function of phloem is to ______.a. retard water loss.b. transport waterc. transport oxygend. photosynthesizee. transport food25. Evolution of Plants; p. 7; moderate; ans: bIf a plant is a vascular plant,


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