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SC BIOL 425 - Chapter 29

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1Chapter 29: Plant Nutrition and SoilsMultiple-Choice Questions1. Essential Elements; p. 684 and Table 29-1; easy; ans: dWhich of the following is NOT an essential element?a. molybdenumb. copperc. irond. aluminume. chlorine 2. Essential Elements; p. 684; easy; ans: cA micronutrient is a plant nutrient required in concentrations equal to or less than ______ mg per kg of dry matter.a. 1 b. 10 c. 100 d. 1000 e. 10,000 3. Essential Elements; p. 684 and Table 29-1; easy; ans: dWhich of the following is NOT a micronutrient?a. zincb. copperc. manganesed. calciume. nickel4. Essential Elements; p. 684; moderate; ans: cWhich of the following statements concerning beneficial elements is FALSE?a. Silicon is a beneficial element only for horsetails.b. Sodium is a beneficial element for certain halophytes.c. They are essential for most plants.d. Aluminum is a beneficial element for the tea plant.e. They are essential for plants grown only under specific environmental conditions.5. Essential Elements; p. 685; moderate; ans: eLegumes grown in culture benefit from the addition of cobalt because the cobalt:a. inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria.b. stimulates cell division of the apical meristem.c. stimulates the growth of root cells.d. is required by mycorrhizae.e. is required by symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.6. Functions of Essential Elements; p. 686; easy; ans: bChlorosis refers to the:a. localized death of tissues.b. yellowing of leaves.c. stunted growth of stems and leaves.d. development of tumors.e. healing of wounds.7. Functions of Essential Elements; p. 686; difficult; ans: cIn magnesium-deficient plants, older leaves become more severely chlorotic than younger leaves because:a. magnesium is less phloem-mobile than chlorophyll.b. magnesium is more phloem-mobile than chlorophyll.c. younger leaves withdraw magnesium from older leaves.d. older leaves withdraw magnesium from younger leaves.e. magnesium is more mobile in younger leaves than in older leaves.8. Functions of Essential Elements; p. 686; easy; ans: eWhich of the following is NOT a phloem-mobile element?a. nitrogenb. magnesiumc. phosphorusd. potassiume. iron9. The Soil; p. 689; easy; ans: bHumus consists mostly of:a. living organic matter.b. dead organic matter.c. sand.d. silt.e. clay.10. The Soil; p. 689; moderate; ans: eWhich of the following statements about soil is FALSE?a. The A horizon has the greatest physical, chemical, and biological activity.b. The A horizon is the topsoil.c. The B horizon is a region of deposition.d. The B horizon is the subsoil.e. The C horizon is part of the true soil.11. The Soil; p. 691; moderate; ans: eWhich of the following soils can hold the greatest amount of water against the action of gravity?a. siltb. loamc. coarse sandd. fine sande. clay12. The Soil; p. 691; moderate; ans: bField capacity is the:a. total amount of water present in a one-hectare field after a soaking rain.b. percentage of water that a soil can hold against the action of gravity.c. percentage of water remaining in a soil when plants undergo irreversible wilting.d. total amount of fertilizer required for maximal plant growth in a one-hectare field.e. total amount of mineral nutrients present in a one-hectare field after a soaking rain.13. The Soil; p. 691; moderate; ans: dThe permanent wilting percentage is the percentage of:a. colloidal particles remaining in the soil after a heavy rain.b. colloidal particles that would cause irreversible wilting. c. colloidal particles that would cause reversible wilting.d. water remaining in a soil when irreversible wilting occurs.e. water remaining in a soil when reversible wilting occurs.14. The Soil; p. 691; easy; ans: aAn example of cation exchange is ______ replacing ______ on a clay particle.a. H+; K+ b. H+; NO3−c. NO3−; SO42− d. OH−; SO42−e. HCO3−; Mg2+15. The Soil; p. 691; moderate; ans: cWhich of the following statements concerning iron is FALSE?a. Iron in the soil is usually insoluble and thus unavailable to plants.b. Iron ranks fourth in abundance among all elements on the surface of the Earth.c. All plants use Strategy I for iron mobilization and uptake.d. Phytosiderophores are iron-chelating compounds.e. Iron in the soil is normally present in the oxidized (Fe3+) form.16. The Soil; p. 691; difficult; ans: ePlants using Strategy II will utilize which of the following for iron mobilization and uptake?a. a Fe2+ transporterb. pores in the plasma membranec. the reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+d. proton pumps that acidify the rhizospheree. Fe3+-phytosiderophores17. The Soil; p. 691; difficult; ans: dWhich of the following ions is MOST likely to be precipitated in alkaline soils?a. hydroxideb. bicarbonatec. sulfated. irone. potassium18. Nutrient Cycles; p. 692; moderate; ans: bWhich of the following statements about nutrient cycles is FALSE?a. They are also called biogeochemical cycles.b. All nutrients recycled to the soil are available for plant use.c. Some cycles involve the atmosphere.d. Each element has a different cycle.e. Macronutrients and micronutrients are recycled.19. Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle; p. 692; easy; ans: eThe chief reservoir of nitrogen is:a. the soil.b. the ocean.c. living organisms.d. dead organic material.e. the atmosphere.20. Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle; p. 692; moderate; ans: aAs dead organic materials are broken down by bacteria and fungi, the nitrogen not used by these organisms is released as ______ in a process called ______.a. NH4+; ammonificationb. NO3−; nitrificationc. NO2−; nitrificationd. N2; denitrificatione. N2O; denitrification21. Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle; p. 692; moderate; ans: bNitrite is oxidized to nitrate by:a. Nitrosomonas.b. Nitrobacter.c. ammonifying bacteria and fungi.d. denitrifying bacteria.e. plant roots.22. Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle; p. 692; difficult; ans: dWhich of the following is(are) a product of denitrification?a. NH4+b. NO3−c. NO2−d. N2e. Amino acids23. Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle; p. 693; moderate; ans: eWhich of the following is NOT a way in which nitrogen is lost from an ecosystem?a. harvesting of plantsb. soil erosionc. burning of plantsd. leachinge. nitrification24. Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle; p. 693; moderate; ans: eIn the process of nitrogen fixation, ______ is converted to ______.a. NH4+; NO3−b. NO3−; NO2−c. N2; NO2−d. N2; NO3−e. N2; NH4+25. Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle; p. 693; difficult; ans: b Which of the following statements about nitrogenase is


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