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SC BIOL 425 - Chapter 30

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1Chapter 30: The Movement of Water and Solutes in PlantsMultiple-Choice Questions1. Introduction; p. 708; moderate; ans: eWhich of the following statements about xylem and phloem is FALSE?a. They are closely associated spatially.b. They are closely associated functionally.c. They form a continuous vascular system.d. They are involved in long-distance transport.e. Xylem transports only water, and phloem transports only nutrients.2. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 709; easy; ans: bTranspiration is the:a. flow of water through the xylem.b. loss of water vapor from plants.c. absorption of water by roots.d. loss of carbon dioxide from leaves.e. entry of carbon dioxide into leaves.3. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; pp. 709–710; easy; ans: dA plant loses the greatest amount of water through the: a. leaf cuticle.b. stem cuticle.c. root cuticle.d. stomata.e. lenticels.4. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 710; moderate; ans: aStomatal transpiration involves two steps:a. evaporation and diffusion.b. evaporation and active transport.c. osmosis and evaporation.d. osmosis and active transport.e. photosynthesis and respiration.5. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 710; difficult; ans: d In the process of stomatal closing, which of the following events occurs first?a. Water moves out of guard cells.b. Water moves into guard cells.c. Guard cell turgor pressure decreases.d. Guard cell solute concentration declines.e. Guard cell water potential increases.6. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 710; easy; ans: b The principle solute involved in creating a water potential gradient in guard cells is:a. H+.b. K+.c. glucose.d. malate.e. Cl–.7. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 710; moderate; ans: cWhich of the following statements concerning the uptake of K+ by guard cells is FALSE? a. Uptake of K+ is driven by a proton gradient.b. Uptake of K+ is mediated by a red-light activated ATPase.c. Uptake of K+ is accompanied by the uptake of Cl–. d. Uptake of K+ is accompanied by the accumulation of malate.e. Uptake of K+ creates the necessary water potential gradient. 8. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 711; easy; ans: bPhototropins are:a. osmoticums.b. photoreceptors.c. microfibrils. d. enzymes.e. active-transport proteins.9. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 711; moderate; ans: eIn guard cells, _____ is the dominant osmoticum in the morning, and ______ is the dominant osmoticum in the afternoon.a. Cl–; sucroseb. malate; K+ c. K+, malated. sucrose; K+e. K+; sucrose10. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 711; moderate; ans: dRadial micellation refers to the ______ of guard cells. a. shapeb. opening and closingc. orientation of proteins in the plasma membraned. orientation of cellulose microfibrils in the cell wallse. mode of attachment between the ends11. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 711; moderate; ans: d In the process of stomatal opening, the ________ walls of the guard cells ________ relative to their common walls.a. inner; move inwardb. inner; move outwardc. outer; move inwardd. outer; move outwarde. outer; remain unchanged12. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 711; moderate; ans: eWhich of the following statements about stomatal movements is FALSE?a. An increase in CO2 levels usually causes stomata to close.b. Sensors for carbon dioxide are located in guard cells.c. Stomatal opening and closing exhibit circadian rhythms.d. Cacti and pineapple open their stomata at night.e. Temperatures above 30°–35°F usually stimulate stomatal opening. [OK to add F?]13. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 711; difficult; ans: a Plants in hot climates regularly close their stomata at midday because ______ accumulates in the leaf, and the leaves become _______.a. carbon dioxide; dehydrated b. carbon dioxide; turgidc. oxygen; dehydratedd. oxygen; turgide. oxygen; depleted of carbon dioxide14. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 711; difficult; ans: dPlants with crassulacean acid metabolism: a. open their stomata when conditions are favorable to transpiration.b. convert CO2 to organic acids during the day.c. convert organic acids to CO2 during the night.d. are exemplified by members of the stonecrop family.e. have a pathway for carbon flow much different from that of C4 plants.15. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 711; easy; ans: cWhich of the following statements concerning nocturnal transpiration is FALSE?a. For some species it constitutes a significant fraction of the daily water use.b. It may enhance nutrient uptake.c. It occurs when evaporation rates are higher than in the day.d. It is due to stomata not closing completely in the dark.e. It is found in many trees and shrubs.16. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 711; easy; ans: cThe rate of water evaporation doubles for every _____ degree C rise in temperature.a. 2b. 5c. 10d. 15e. 2017. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; pp. 711–712; easy; ans: eThe rate of transpiration is affected by stomatal movements and:a. air currents only.b. humidity only.c. temperature only.d. temperature and air currents only.e. temperature, humidity, and air currents.18. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; p. 712; difficult; ans: eA dry breeze increases the rate of transpiration mainly because it:a. cools the leaf.b. warms the leaf.c. increases the CO2 gradient across the leaf surface.d. decreases the CO2 gradient across the leaf surface.e. increases the vapor pressure difference across the leaf surface.19. Movement of Water and Inorganic Nutrients through the Plant Body; pp. 712–713; moderate; ans: eWhich of the following statements is NOT consistent with the cohesion-tension theory?a. A gradient of water potential exists between the stem and the root.b. Transpiration brings about a lowered water potential in the leaves.c. Water in the xylem is under tension.d. A gradient of water potential provides the driving force for the movement of water from the soilthrough the plant to the atmosphere.e. Root


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