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SC BIOL 425 - Chapter 12

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Chapter 12: Systematics: The Science of Biological DiversityMultiple-Choice Questions1. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 234; easy; ans: dModern biological classification began with:a. Charles Darwin.b. Gregor Mendel.c. Jean Baptiste de Lamarck.d. Carl Linnaeus.e. Caspar Bauhin.2. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; pp. 234-235; moderate; ans: eWhich of the following statements about Linnaeus is FALSE?a. He published the book Species Plantarum.b. He described each species using a sentence of no more than 12 words.c. He made permanent the binomial system of nomenclature.d. He devised a polynomial as a proper name for each species.e. He developed a “shorthand” designation for each species consisting of a single word.3. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 235; moderate; ans: aThe binomial for poison ivy is Toxicodendron radicans. To what genus does this plant belong?a. Toxicodendronb. Radicansc. Toxicodendron radicansd. Poison ivye. Toxicodendron radicans poison ivy 4. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 235; moderate; ans: cThe binomial for the coast redwood is Sequoia sempervirens. What is the species name of this plant?a. Sequoiab. Sempervirensc. Sequoia sempervirensd. Coast redwoode. Sequoia sempervirens coast redwood 5. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 235; difficult; ans: dWhich of the following statements about the naming of species and varieties is FALSE?a. Type specimens serve as a basis for designating the species of other specimens.b. Certain species consist of two or more varieties.c. The varieties of a species that includes the type specimen is named by repeating the specific epithet.d. When used alone, the specific epithet provides valuable taxonomic information.e. Names of genera and species are printed in italic.6. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 236; moderate; ans: cWhich of the following lists the taxonomic categories in the correct hierarchy, from most to least inclusive, under kingdom?a. Class, phylum, order, family, genus, speciesb. Order, class, phylum, family, genus, speciesc. Phylum, class, order, family, genus, speciesd. Phylum, order, class, family, genus, speciese. Order, phylum, family, class, genus, species7. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 236; moderate; ans: eCattleya is one genus in the Orchidaceaea, the orchid family. In this example:a. Cattleya is a category.b. Orchidaceae is a category.c. Cattleya is a taxon but Orchidaceae is not.d. Orchidaceae is a taxon but Cattleya is not.e. Cattleya and Orchidaceae are taxa.8. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 236; easy; ans: bThe term “phylum” is nomenclaturally equivalent to:a. class.b. division.c. order.d. kingdom.e. family.9. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 237; moderate; ans: eThe names of almost all plant families end in:a. -ium.b. -ica.c. -om.d. -ales.e. -aceae.10. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 238; easy; ans: dPhylogeny refers to the:a. naming of organisms.b. placing of organisms into phyla.c. nomenclature of species.d. evolutionary history of an organism.e. grouping of classes of organisms.11. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 238; moderate; ans: a A natural classification system differs from an artificial classification system in that a natural classification system:a. reflects the evolutionary relationships among organisms.b. is based on plant form: trees, shrubs, undershrubs, and herbs.c. is based on the number and arrangement of stamens in the flower.d. classifies organisms by means of one or a few characters.e. classifies organisms primarily as an aid to identification.12. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 238; easy; ans: cWhen the members of a taxon are all descendents of a common single ancestral species, the taxon is said to be:a. phylogenetic.b. paraphyletic.c. monophyletic.d. polyphyletic.e. amphiphyletic.13. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 238; easy; ans: dWhen the members of a group have two or more ancestors, that group is said to be:a. phylogenetic.b. paraphyletic.c. monophyletic.d. polyphyletic.e. amphiphyletic.14. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 239; easy; ans: dBiological features that have a common origin, even if they have a different function, are said to be:a. artificial.b. natural.c. paraphyletic.d. homologous.e. analogous.15. Taxonomy: Nomenclature and Classification; p. 239; moderate; ans: eThe wing of a bird and the wing of an insect are:a. homologous but not artificial.b. polyphyletic but not paraphyletic.c. paraphyletic but not polyphyletic.d. homologous but not analogous.e. analogous but not homologous.16. Cladistics; p. 239; easy; ans: a Synapomorphies are: a. shared derived characters. b. outgroups used to root a tree.c. ingroups used to root a tree.d. types of sister groups.e. branches on a cladogram.17. Cladistics; p. 240; moderate; ans: d In a cladogram, groups that terminate in adjacent branches are called: a. nodes. b. derived groups.c. synapomorphies.d. sister groups.e. outgroups.18. Cladistics; p. 240; easy; ans: b The rule of parsimony states that: a. analogous features should be given more importance than homologous features. b. cladograms should be constructed in the least complicated way.c. character states are distinguished from one another by comparison with outgroups.d. adjacent branches should terminate in a node.e. phylogenetic relationships should be based on ancestral character states.19. Molecular Systematics; p. 240; easy; ans: eWhich of the following statements concerning the use of molecular data in systematics is FALSE?a. Molecular data are easier to quantify than traditional data.b. Molecular data provide more characters for analysis that traditional data.c. Molecular data allow comparisons of morphologically different organisms.d. Molecular data permit comparisons of organisms at the level of the gene.e. Molecular data concerning the amino acid sequences of proteins are the most widely used.20. Molecular Systematics; p. 240; moderate; ans: bNeutral mutations:a. are not helpful in systematics.b. can be used to determine changes occurring in homologous genes since lineages diverged.c. have accumulated over time as the result of natural selection.d. have accumulated at a highly changeable rate over evolutionary time.e. account for a very small percentage of the variation in homologous genes in different groups of organisms.21. Molecular Systematics; p. 240; moderate;


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