New version page

SC BIOL 425 - ch08-25

This preview shows page 1-2-3 out of 10 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 10 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Chapter 8: Sexual Reproduction and Heredity1. Sexual Reproduction; p. 141; easy; ans: FAll eukaryotes reproduce sexually.2. Sexual Reproduction; p. 142; easy; ans: THomologous chromosomes resemble each other in size, shape, and the kinds of hereditary information they contain.3. The Eukaryotic Chromosome; p. 143; moderate; ans: FA nucleosome is composed of histone proteins wrapped around a DNA filament. 4. The Process of Meiosis; pp. 143-144; easy; ans: TIn contrast to a gamete, a spore can develop into an organism without uniting with another cell.5. The Process of Meiosis; p. 145; moderate; ans: FCrossing-over is the exchange of genetic material between the sister chromatids of a chromosome.6. The Process of Meiosis; p. 145; moderate; ans: TChiasmata are the visible representation that crossing-over has taken place.7. The Process of Meiosis; p. 147; moderate; ans: FIt is likely that one of the four daughter cells resulting from meiosis will be genetically identical to one of the gametes that fused to produce the diploid line of cells undergoing meiosis.8. How Characteristics Are Inherited; p. 150; moderate; ans: FThe term “genotype” refers to the appearance of an individual.9. How Characteristics Are Inherited; p. 151; moderate; ans: TA testcross is used to determine whether a plant showing a dominant trait is homozygous or heterozygous for that trait.10. The Principle of Independent Assortment; pp. 151–152; moderate; ans: TMendel’s experiments using dihybrid crosses produced completely new combinations of characteristics in the F1 generation.11. Linkage; p. 152; easy; ans: FThe greater the distance between two genes on a chromosome, the smaller is the chance that they will undergo crossing-overduring meiosis.12. Mutations; p. 153; easy; ans: TA mutation is any change in the hereditary state of an organism.13. Mutations; p. 154; easy; ans: TPolyploidy results from the duplication of whole sets of chromosomes.14. Mutations; p. 155; moderate; ans: TA mutation in a haploid cell is more likely to have an effect on phenotype than a mutation in a diploid cell.15. Broadening the Concept of the Gene; p. 156; moderate; ans: FEpistasis is an example of interactions between the alleles of a gene.16. Broadening the Concept of the Gene; p. 157; moderate; ans: TCytoplasmic inheritance refers to genes located in mitochondria or plastids.17. Broadening the Concept of the Gene; p. 157; easy; ans: FThe genotype is the result of the phenotype interacting with the environment.18. Asexual Reproduction: An Alternative Strategy; p. 158; easy; ans: TPlants that reproduce only asexually have evolved from ancestors that were capable of sexual reproduction.19. Advantages of Sexual Reproduction; p. 159; moderate; ans: TIn theory, sexual reproduction is unnecessary for the survival of a population of organisms in an unchanging environment.Chapter 9: The Chemistry of Heredity and Gene Expression 1. The Structure of DNA; p. 163; moderate; ans: FIn the ladder molecule of a DNA molecule, the purine and pyrimidine bases comprise the sides of the ladder.2. The Structure of DNA; p. 165; easy; ans: TAdenine forms two hydrogen bonds with thymine.3. The Structure of DNA; p. 166; moderate; ans: TThe complementarity of the two strands of DNA is a direct result of A pairing only with T and C pairing only with G.4. The Structure of DNA; p. 166; moderate; ans: FThe two strands of a DNA molecule are said to be antiparallel, each strand having its 5N end at the same end of the molecule.5. DNA Replication; p. 166; easy; ans: TIn DNA replication, each strand serves as a template for the formation of a new strand.6. DNA Replication; p. 167; moderate; ans: TDNA polymerase synthesizes new DNA strands only in the 5N to 3N direction.7. DNA Replication; p. 167; moderate; ans: FIn DNA replication, the leading strand is synthesized in fragments, called Okazaki fragments, while the lagging strand is synthesized continuously.8. From DNA to Protein: The Role of RNA; p. 168; easy; ans: FRNA contains thymine instead of uracil.9. From DNA to Protein: The Role of RNA; p. 168; easy; ans: TTranscription is catalyzed by the enzyme RNA polymerase.10. The Genetic Code; p. 169; moderate; ans: TThe triplet codon was first demonstrated in experiments using bacterial extracts, mRNAs, and radioactively labeled amino acids.11. The Genetic Code; p. 169; moderate; ans: TSome amino acids have more than one codon. 12. The Genetic Code; p. 169; easy; ans: FThe genetic code in prokaryotes is different from that in eukaryotic cells.13. Protein Synthesis; p. 170; easy; ans: FThe terminator is a section of DNA that codes for the destruction of mRNA molecules following translation.14. Protein Synthesis; p. 171; moderate; ans: TIn the initiation phase of translation, the larger ribosomal subunit attaches to the smaller subunit.15. Protein Synthesis; p. 173; easy; ans: TA group of ribosomes translating the same mRNA molecule is called a polysome.16. Protein Synthesis; p. 173; easy; ans: FRelease factors are directly involved in the elongation phase of translation.17. Protein Synthesis; p. 173; moderate; ans: FProteins destined for the nucleus are taken up through the nuclear envelope by cotranslational import.18. Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes; p. 175; easy; ans: TIn the cells of a multicellular eukaryote, some genes are active at the same time that others are inactive.19. Regulating Gene Expression; p. 175; moderate; ans: TIn a plant, root cells have the same genetic composition as leaf cells.20. Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes; p. 175; moderate; ans: THeterochromatin is more tightly condensed than euchromatin and in some regions is never transcribed.21. Regulation of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes; p. 175; moderate; ans: FTranscription factors are RNA molecules that directly or indirectly affect the initiation of transcription.22. The DNA of the Eukaryotic Chromosome; p. 176; easy; ans: TThe two major categories of repeated DNA are tandemly repeated DNA and interspersed repeated DNA.23. The DNA of the Eukaryotic Chromosome; p. 176; easy; ans: FMost structural genes of eukaryotes are continuous, not interrupted by the noncoding sequences common in other types of genes.24. Transcription and Processing of mRNA in Eukaryotes; p. 177; moderate; ans: FIn eukaryotes, several structural genes may be transcribed as a single RNA molecule.25. Transcription and Processing of mRNA in Eukaryotes; p. 178; easy; ans: TThe 5N cap of mRNA


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view ch08-25 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view ch08-25 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?