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SC BIOL 101 - Exam #2

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Chapter 31 Kingdom Fungi- Multicellular absorptive chemoheterotrophs; absorb organic materials, release enzymes into the environment (powerful hydrolytic enzymes), that will break down proteins into amino acids and carbohydrates into monosaccharides etc.; kingdom fungi o Include yeast, mushrooms, truffleso Some are parasitic, ex. histoplasmosis o Symbiotic relationships: Lichens- very hearty; capable of surviving touch conditions; 25,000 species of lichens; composed of a fungal mycelium and green algae (eukaryotes in the kingdom Protista)/ or cyanobacteria; have a mutualistic symbiotic relationship, take in Co2 and produce sugars (algae) Mycorrhizae- mutualistic symbiotic relationship; mycelium of afungus and a root of a plant; mycelium of fungus helps the rootsabsorb water and minerals and in return gets excess sugars from the plant; hypothesis that plants weren’t able to invade land until this symbiotic relationship evolved Chapter 33: Kingdom Animalia - Though to have evolved 1.5 million years ago - Ingestive (eat with something similar to a mouth) chemoheterotrophs (get energy from chemical bond energy, have to get organic molecules from something else that is or was alive)o Store carbohydrates as glycogen (animal starch)o Gap junctionso Tight junctions in desmosomes o Have two unique types of tissue: muscle tissue and nervous tissue  Nervous tissue generates nerve impulses; allow nervous system to control muscles, glands, and behavior- Animal embryology o Sperm cell (has to swim in liquid), gets together with the egg cell through fertilization, after fertilization have a single cell embryo calledzygote (2N) Zygote goes through period called cleavage- mitotic cell division occurs; product of cleavage is a blastula which is a hollow ball of cells, wall is composed of many cells and inside isa cavity called a blastocoele After blastula is gastrulation- convert a single layered blastula into a 3 layer gastrula; 3 layers are called primary germ (germination, period of development) layers:1. Ectoderm- forms epidermis of skin and nervous system2. Mesoderm- forms everything else (bulk of your body), bones, muscles, blood, gonads, connecting tissue etc. 3. Endoderm- forms inner lining of elementary canal (mouth to anus) Embryo becomes cup-shaped; outer layer is ectoderm, mesoderm on the inside of that, endoderm on the other side; archenteron is on the inner most cup space; blastopore most outer space inside the cup Finished product is ectoderm out, mesoderm middle and ectoderm inner cup layer- 35 phyla of animalso Porifera- pore bearing, sponges; most primitive o Cnidarian- corals, hydra, jellyfish, sea anemones; cnidocyte (stinging cells of a jelly fish)o Platyhelminithes- flat worms; ex planaria and flukes o Nematode- round worms; ex. pin worms, nematodes o Mellusca- snails, clams, squid, octopus, etc.o Annelida- earthworms, leeches, fireworms o Arthropoda- joint foot; insects, crabs, shrimp o Echinodermata- starfish, sea cucumbers o Chordata- chordates (most vertabrates)- Animals evolved from protists called choanoflagellates o Composed of collar cells, have a collar with a flagellum on the outside, and cell body; flagellum creates a current in watero Filter feeder or suspension feeders- filter sea watero Colonial protists - Animal Phylogeny:o Parazoa- no true tissueso Eumetazoa- true tissueo Radiata- have radial symmetry; have oral surface and aboral surface (opposite of mouth); diploblastic- two germ layerso Bilateria- have bilateral symmetry; cephalization (head); triploblastic-3 germ layerso Acoelomate- no body cavity o Pseudocoelomate- pseudocoelom (cavity); a true coelem is lined with mesoderm, a pseudo is not fully lined with mesoderm o Coelomate- cavity o Protostomes vs. deuterostomes Protostomes: annelids, arthropods, mellusca; blastopore forms the mouth and the anus forms later; have spiral cleavage (the cleavage plane is oblique to the polar axis, cells will wind up at an angle); determinant development (fate of the cells of the embryo is determined very early; coelom formation; schizocoelous (split coelem, mass of mesoderm on each side of the embryo and a split forms) Deuterostomes: echinoderms, chordates (most closely related to them; blastopore forms the anus and the mouth forms later; have radial cleavage (when the cell divides the cleavage plane is parallel or perpendicular to the polar axis, cells will be in a strait line); indeterminate development; enterocoelous (gut coelem)o Molecular genetics- sequence the DNA molecule; can also sequence RNA (ribosomal); have changed info about phylogeny  Deuterostomes are unchanged; echinoderms and chordates  Protostomes have been split into two groups1. Arthropoda and nemotoda (most closely related); unique anatomically because they both shed their skin (molt- ecdysozoa)2. Mellusca, annelida, and polyhelimenthes; group is called lophotrochozoa (tentacles used for feeding)Chapter 34: Phylum Chordata- Apomorphic characterso Members always have a notochord at some point in their life (a rod of cells that are essentially a skeleton in an embryo); functions in skeletalsupport and embryonic developmento Dorsal hollow nerve cord- composes brain and spinal cord  Dorsal- top Ventral- bottom o Post anal tail at some point in life cycle o Presence of pharyngeal clefts- developed in primitive chordates as a means of filter feeding (ex. sponges); tissue in between the clefts is pharyngeal arch (contain a skeletal element ex. bone or cartilage, muscle, and nerves) Pharynx is throat region  Cleft is an opening in the pharynx - Lancelets- have sword shapeo Occur in sandy areas o Makes living through filter feedingo Metameric (segmented)- Sea squirts- live on rocks in the intertidal zone o Makes living through filter feeding - Subphylum vertebrata (humans)o Chordates that have a backboneo Used to be called craniata (cranium)o Most primitive vertebrates are in the group agnatha  Have no jaws and no paired fins  Hag fish- burrow into the bodies of dead animals on sea floor  Lamphrey eel- similar to parasites; suction cup for mouth and grasping structure Covedonts Ostractoderms o Group gnathostomata Have jaws and paired fins; allows them to become predators and maniupulate the environment  Placoderms Chondrichthyes- include sharks, sting rays, and ratfish; have cartilage skeleton; liver enormous in size (both allow them to be lighter) Ostrichthyes- bony fishes; have


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