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SC BIOL 101 - chapter 6 biology notes

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Chapter 6: Cells- Prokaryote- no true nucleuso Bacteria- 10 microns- Eukaryotic- true nucleus o Protista; animals, plants, fungi- 100 microns- Plasma membrane- composed of a bilayer of phospholipids and interspersed proteins- Cell theory:o All living things are composed of cells- Schwann and Scheideno All cells come from pre-existing cells- Virchow- DNA is double stranded, thymine- RNA is single stranded, uracil- Cells are microscopic- as cells get bigger, the amount of cytoplasm will increase faster than the cell membraneo Cytoplasm in the cell produces wasteo Ribosomes- composed of large O and o subunit; function is protein synthesiso Nucleoid- the region where you find chromosomes o Endoplasmic Reticulum- rough ER (ribosomes, site of protein synthesis) smooth ER (lipid and carb synthesis)- once made they are packaged into transport vesicles o Transport vesicle- transport contents to Golgi apparatus o Golgi apparatus- composed of roughly 5-7 cisternae; cis face closest tonucleus; trans face “shipping side”; place of assembly o Protein+carb might combine to form glycoprotein o Secretory vesicle- moves away from trans side of Golgi and fuses with plasma membrane of cell; pore develops where fusion happens and glycoproteins are secreted from the cell; trans side can also produce lysosomes o Lysosomes- organelle of endomembrane system; large vesicle; contains power hydrolytic enzymes- can break two monomers apart by adding water (hydrolysis); intracellular digestion- taken into the cell by phagocytosis (cell-eating), plasma membrane forms extensioncalled pseudopodia and takes bacteria into cell, phagocytic vesicle around bacteria in cell and meets with lysosome where it is then digested (we digest with extracellular digestion) o Vacuole- large vesicleo Autophagy- self eating, destroy defective organelles o Endomembrane system*- membrane within the cello Nucleolus- the location of ribosome synthesiso Chromatin- what chromosomes are made of o Lumen- the space in-between o Nuclear Pores- for entering and exitingo Mitochondrion- (not part of endomembrane system); site of cellular respiration- involves chemical reactions that use oxygen and release carbon dioxideCH20 + O = C02 + H20 + ENERGY (energy used to make ATP which is energy money) o Lynn Margulis: Endosymbiot (one cell living inside the cytoplasm of another) theory- mitochondria and chloroplasts used to be free living bacteria; mitochondria was an aerobic bacterium (can use oxygen to perform cellular respiration) o Chloroplast- organelle found in photosynthetic eukaryotic cells (plants: kingdom Plantae; algae: group Protista); location of photosynthesis in eukaryotic cells CO2 + H2O sunglight CH20 + O2= o Peroxisomes- destroy peroxides (hydrogen peroxide) H-O-O-H (H2O2); any molecule with an O-O single bond; important in fatty acid metabolism- broken apart two carbons at a time as a fuel to make ATP in mitochondria - Cytoskeleton of Eukaryotic Cells- framework that structures cytoplasm of cells; can change the shape of a cells, allow it to move, etc. 1) Microtubules (largest)- formed from the protein tubulin; maintain cell shape and important in changing cell shape; track for motor proteinso Cilia and flagella- contain microtubules; at the base have a basal body-respiratory system: bronchial tubes then trachea; lined with a layer of cells which have cilia on them; cells are anchored down and cilia propels mucus- helps to clean respiratory system; 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubulesex. animals, Protista, fungi, plants 2) Intermediate filaments- strands; made of protein keratin (fingernails and hair made out of this); important in anchoring parts of the cell together3) Microfilaments (smallest)- composed of protein actin; important in movement; in division they appear in between the two cells- compressthe central region of the cell until eventually they split; involved in muscle contraction Proteins and Nucleic Acids are structurally polarized - Centrosome- clear cytoplasm; microtubular organizing center; organizes the development and changing of microtubules in the cell- Centrioles- composed of 9 triplets of microtubules; 2 centrioles in the centrosome in animal cells; help direct the formation of microtubules- Cell Surfaces and Junctionso Plants: -primary cell wall- structure; made of cellulose; prevent cell from exploding -few plant cells have secondary cell wall- inside of cell wall; thicker and stronger than the primary cell wall; cells of wood have these; composed of cellulose and hardening substance called lignin (important in making paper)- makes cellulose stronger and harder-space in between cells= middle lamella -pectin (polysaccharide) hold cells togethero Animals:-do not have a cell wall but have extracellular matrix; composed of glycoproteins (proteins with small carbohydrates attached to it); ex. collagen, proteoglycan (carbohydrate core with amino acid chains); guides cell migration , cellular adhesion (CAMS: cellular adhesion molecules); cellular recognition: cells of immune system can recognizeforeign objects -cancer cells loose cellular adhesion, CAMS are defective, can undergo metastasis (new cancer that develops away from original cancer)o Plant Cellular junctions-plasmadesmata: connection between two adjacent plant cells o Animal cell junction-gap junction: allows ions etc. to go from one animal cell to the next; cardio muscle cells are all united by gap junctions; when one contractsall of its neighbors can contract at the same time -tight junctions: found in epithelia (layers of cells on body surfaces) etc. skin, inner lining of mouth; plasma members of epithelia with fusetogether to form tight junction -desmosome junction: rivet or spot weld; composed of series of proteins in plasma membranes; anchor cells of an epithelia together tomake very strong; found commonly in epithelia that endure a lot of stretch (ex. urinary bladder)Chapter 7: The Plasma Membraneo Fluid Mosaic Model 1972- talks about the structure of the plasma membrane; The plasma membrane is composed of phospholipid bilayer with interspersed proteins o Plasma membrane is like a fluid; components can move around; mainly composed of phospholipids- arranged in a bilayer; mainly lipidso To keep lipids from solidifying, make sure fatty acids of phospholipids are at least partially unsaturated allowing them to move more freely; another way is to break up fatty acid tails by cholesterol moleculeso Fish that live in water that is very warm,


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