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SC BIOL 101 - Biology Chapter 1 Lecture Notes

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Biology: Chapter 1- Characteristics of living things1. Complex organized structure based on the element carbon2. Reproduce and show gene (based off DNA) control heredity (way you inherit)3. Show growth and development 4. Energy processing ex. all from sun/environment and convert5. Irritability- respond to changes in the environment6. Regulation/homeostasis- physiological stability (how body works) ex. temperature or blood sample7. Evolutionary adaptation- living things can change and adapt to changes inthe environment - Evolutionary adaptation -hierarchy of biological organizationo Biosphere-all of the life on planet and all places where life exists; includes biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) components o Ecosystem-composed of all living and non living components of a particular place ex. coral reef ecosystem; size is up to a biologisto Community-all the living components of an ecosystem; composed of population (all the members within a species)o Organisms-make up the levels within a population o Organ system-ex. digestiveo Organs-stomach, small intestine o Tissues-group of similar cells; epithelial tissueo Cells-composed of organelles; mitochondriao Organelles-composed of moleculeso Molecules-composed of atoms - Cells-Robert Hook-1700s-chambers in a cork slice- Cell Theory:o All living things are composed of cellso All cells come from pre-existing cells- Spontaneous generation- things just appear; ex. magets on dead body (not supported by cell theory)- 2 types of cells1. prokaryote (before nucleus)-bacteria; larger and more complicated; no nucleus2. eukaryote (true nucleus)-fungi; have a true nucleus (contains chromosomes) - Biological Classificationo Species-population(s) of organisms whose members interbreed and are reproductively isolated from other such groups o Genus (Genera)- a group of closely related specieso Family-group of closely related generao Order-group of closely related familieso Class-group of closely related orderso Phyllum-group of closely related classeso Kingdom-group of closely related phylumo Domain-group of closely related kingdoms- 3 Domain systems1. Archeae-extremophiles (helophiles and thermophiles); prokaryote2. Bacteria-ecoli, strep; prokaryote 3. Eukarya-eukaryote; filled with various groups of animals; o Protista- amoeba (many kingdoms within a group)-unicellular eukaryoteo Kingdoms1. Fungi-multicellular; absorptive (take things in from surface)2. Animals (animilia)-multicellular and ingestive3. Plantae- multicellular and photosynthetic organisms - Unity (fundamental similarities) and Diversity of LifeEx. cilia or cillium; found in humans, plants, funji- Darwin 1858 wrote orgin of species (evolution)o Arose from a succession of life formso Natural selection: differential reproduction- Scientific Inquiryo Discovery science-involves observing environment around you and discoveringo Hypothesis based science (scientific method)-based on hypothesis (guess to explain some observation; has to be verifiable/testable/falsifiable)Ex. Einstein and relativity (wasn’t testable at the time due to lack of technology)- Hypothesis vs. Theoryo Hypothesis-guess as to what causes some phenomenono Theory-very powerful hypothesis; undergone multiple tests; can explain many different aspects; much more significant Ex. evolutionary theory-basis of


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