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FSU BSC 2011 - LECTURE

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Lecture 1

Lecture 1

31 pages

Test 1

Test 1

8 pages

Ecology

Ecology

31 pages

Test 1

Test 1

6 pages

Exam 2

Exam 2

34 pages

Exam 3

Exam 3

6 pages

Exam

Exam

39 pages

CNIDARIAN

CNIDARIAN

12 pages

Ecology

Ecology

15 pages

EXAM 3

EXAM 3

28 pages

Mollusca

Mollusca

40 pages

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LECTURE 1/2 Independent variable: a variable whose variation does not depend on that of another. Usually used as X on x, y axis  Dependent variable: a variable value depends on that of another. Usually used as Y on an x, y axis.  Citation in a paper (author, year) if one author (author et al., 1993) if more than three authors o Inside paper:Contributors' names (Last edited date).Title of resource. Retrieved from http://Web address for OWL resourceAngeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5).General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/Mitosis: Prophase: nuclear membrane disappears and framework of microtubules in formed, spindle fibers begin to form. Prometaphase: The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the nuclear membrane disintegrates, the centrioles connect to the poles of the cell, and the chromosomes continue to contract.  Metaphase: each chromosome is positioned along central axis of cell  Anaphase: the centromere splits into two, causing sister chromatids to separate, once separated, each chromatid is considered a chromosome, pulled to opposite sides of cell. Telophase: daughter nuclei begin to form at each pole. Cytokinesis: cytoplasm divides resulting in two genetically identical separate daughter cells . Chromatin: the material that makes up the chromosomes, it consists of protein, rna and dna. Nucleosome: Structural unit of eukaryotic chromosome. Consisting of a length ofDNA coiled around a core of histonesReplication: the duplication of identical genetic materialTranscription: transcribing the genetic code of DNA into RNA molecules Translation: RNA using DNA signals to build proteins using amino acids. Histone: the protein that DNA is wrapped around A non-dividing chromosome is made up of a strand of DNA wound around protein molecules (histones). A series of genes will be inside the DNA. Spindle: the spindle- shaped achromatic structure, composed of microtubules, along which the chromosomes are distributed in mitosis and meiosis LECUTRE 3Meristems:o Meristems are active sites of cell division and growth and development occur in cells adjacent to meristems. o Development of meristem doesn’t happen until after cell divison. o Meristems can divide under specific conditions leading to new cells that have the ability to elongate. o Lateral Meristems: addlayers of vascular tissue (xylem) to make a thicker periderm.o Apical meristems: located at tips of roots and shoots they provide additional cells that enable grown in cells which is known as primary grown. LECTURE 4/5- Gene expression: The appearance in a phenotype of a characteristic or effect attributed to a particular gene- Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA iscopied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase- Translation: The process by which messenger RNA directs the amino acid sequence of a growing polypeptide during protein synthesis.Be able to explain that the differences in phenotype (structure and function) of cells with identical genomes is due to differences in gene expression- Different cells are activated Be able to explain that cell differentiation is largely a result of expression- The normal process by which a less specialized cell develops or matures to possess a more distinct form and function.Induced VS Repressed- If a lac repressor is active by itself it will bind to the operon and switch it off, an inducer inactivates the repressor. Know that gene expression in eukaryotes can be controlled at multiple stages during transcription and translationBe able to explain two ways in which modification of histone structure can affect transcription (acetylation and methylation)- Acetylation: the process of introducing an acetyl group into a compound- Methylation: a methyl group is added into the compound- Histone acetylation enhances transcription, which makes more gene product. DNA methylation makes it harder for DNA polymerase to bind to the DNA stand, which stops transcription and no gene product is made.Know that enhancers and transcription factors can affect transcriptionKnow that enhancers and transcription factors can result in cell specific transcriptionLECURE 6Be able to explain the 2 mechanisms blocking polyspermy in sea urchins- Acrosomal Reaction: Fast block to polyspermy: prevent additional sperm from fusing with the egg’s plasma membrane - Cortical Reaction: Slow block to polyspermy: the fertilization envelope and other changes in the egg’s surface impede the entry of additional sperm nuclei, stimulates release of cortical enzymes out of the cellBe able to explain why blocking multiple fertilizations is important.- If polyspermy were to occur, the resulting abnormal number of chromosomes in the embryo would be lethalLECURE 7Know that development consists of fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, and organogenesis be able to distinguish the basic processes occurring in each.- Fertilization: union of egg and sperm- Cleavage: rapid cell divisions, hollow ball of cells is a blastula and a fluid filled cavity is a blastocoel, cell division without growth- Gastrulation: reorganization of the blastula into a 2 or 3-layered embryo called a gastrula, cell layers produced are collectively called the germ layers, ectoderm,endoderm and mesoderm. - Organogenesis: regions of the germ layers become organs - The archenteron is the embryonic gut- forms as a result of gastrulation Lecture 8The position of regions of the embryo relative to one another provides information that determines the formation of organs. Notochord stimulates the formation of the neural plate, neural tube stimulates the neural crest cells. - Notochord is the rod that extends along the dorsal side of the chordate embryo, signaling molecules induce the ectoderm above the notochord to become the neural plate. - The neural plate begins to form itself into the neural tube. The neural tube will eventually become the brain , head and spinal chord along the rest of the body.- Neural crest cells are the first set of band cells which develop along the borders where the neural tube pinches off from the ectoderm- The grey crescent forms on opposite side of sperm penetration When a group of cells on the dorsal side of the blastula begins to invaginate this forms a crease where the grey crescent formed, the part above the crease becomes the dorsal sideof the blastopore,


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