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FSU BSC 2011 - Lecture 11: Sexual Reproduction

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Test 2 Study GuideLecture 11: Sexual ReproductionConcepts- Know that asexual reproduction results in genetically Identical offspring- Know that asexual reproduction is genetically the same as cloning.- Know that sexual reproduction results in genetically similar but not identical offspring.- Know that asexual reproduction is the result of mitosis- Know that chromosomes exist as homologous pairs in diploids- Know and understand why meiosis produces haploid daughter cells from diploid parents- Know that sexual life cycles alternate meiosis and fertilization- Know that sexual life cycles vary in the timing of meiosis and fertilization.Terms to Know - Haploid, diploid, homologouschromosome (homologous pair), sister chromatid,gamete, zygote, meiosis, fertilization, gonad.sexual reproduction, asexual reproduction,clone, spore, gametophyte, sporophyte1. Haploid- a cell with one set of chromosomes (n chromosomes); normally in gametes of sexually reproducing animals2. Diploid-a cell with two sets of chromosomes (2n chromosomes) 3. Homologous chromosomes: a pair of chromosomes of the same length, centromere position and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci; one homologous chromosome is inherited from the mother and one from the father (homologs); genetically similar but not identical4. Sister chromatid: joined copies of one chromosome; they separate from each during anaphase of mitosis so that each daughter cell gets a copy of the chromosome; identical to one another5. Gamete: a haploid reproductive cell, usually an egg or sperm, that combines with another gamete to produce a diploid zygote during sexual reproduction6. Zygote: the diploid cell produced by the union of haploid gametes during fertilization7. Meiosis: cellular division in which one diploid cell produces 4 genetically different, haploid daughter cells; process by which gametes are produced8. Fertilization: the union of two gametes during sexual reproduction; results ina diploid zygote9. Gonad: the male and female sex organs that produce gametes; testes in male and the ovaries in females10. Sexual reproduction: process by which gametes from 2 organisms join one another during fertilization to produce a diploid zygote; increases genetic variability within population11. Asexual reproduction: process by which an organism reproduces through mitosis; the result is a genetically identical daughter cell; there is no genetic variability between the parent cell or daughter cell12. Clone: a lineage of genetically identical individuals; reproduce through mitosis13. Spore: in the life cycle of plants or algae undergoing alternation of generations, a haploid cell produced in the sporophyte by meiosis; the spore can divide by mitosis to develop into a multicellular haploid individual (the gametophyte) without fusing with another cell14. Gametophyte: in organisms (Plants and some algae) that have alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that produces haploid gametes bymitosis; the haploid gametes unite and develop into sporophytes15. Sporophyte: in plants and some algae that undergo alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid form that result from the union of gametes; the sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis that develop into gametophytesAlternation of Generations:Animals are composed of almost entirely diploid, somatic cells. They undergo mitosis to grow or for any repairs needed to their bodies. They undergo meiosis only when producing gametes (sperm or egg), which are haploid. Through fertilization (usually internal), one gamete from a male (thesperm) will combine with the egg from a female to create a diploid zygote. This zygote then undergoes repeated cell division (cleavage) and slowly becomes a fetus, after undergoing blastulation and gastrulation. When this organism is born, it may need to go through a maturation period, a process known as metamorphosis when the animal becomes sexually mature and often morphologically different from its sexually immature self. This organism is then able to produce its own gametes and fertilize another organism of the same species to continue the cycle.Plants undergo a process known as alternation of generations. A multicellular diploid plant (a sporophyte) will produce haploid cells called spores through meiosis. These spores, however, do not combine with other spores to create a diploid organism as in animals. They divide through mitosis to create a multicellular haploid stage, where it is known as the gametophyte. Gametophytes undergo mitosis to produce haploid gametes, which then fuse with other gametes to create a haploid organism. This haploid organism then divides through mitosis to become to the original sporophyte. In fungi, gametes combine to produce a diploid zygote. However, this zygote does not undergo mitosis and instead produces haploid cells through meiosis. These haploid cells then undergo mitosis to produce eitherunicellular offspring or a haploid multicellular organism. This organism then divides via mitosis to produce gametes, which then fuse with another to formthe diploid zygote. The unicellular zygote is the only diploid stage found in fungi. Lecture 12: Meiosis- Understand that meiosis produces haploid daughter cells by separating homologous pairs of chromosomes so that one homolog goes to each cell.- Know that meiosis consists of two stages: meiosis I and meiosis II- Know that the end product of meiosis is 4 haploid cells- Know that homologous chromosomes are separated in meiosis I- Know that sister chromatids are separated in meiosis II- Know the names of the stages of meiosis and what happens in each- Understand that the pairing of homologs and crossing over both occur in prophase I- Understand that both the random assortment of homologs into daughter cells and the process of crossing over result in genetically variable gametes- Know the differences between mitosis and meiosis- Know that special molecules prevent the separation of sister chromatids in anaphase IVocab: 1. Synapsis: during Prophase 1 state in which paired homologs become physically connected to each other by zipper-like protein structure (synaptonemal complex); state in which crossing over occurs2. Crossing over: genetic rearrangement b/w non-sister chromatids involving exchange of corresponding segments of DNA molecules; occurs during Prophase 1 and increases variation3. Chiasma: exists at the point where a crossover


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