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FSU MET 1010 - Chapter 5: Condensation: Dew, Fog, and Clouds

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Chapter 5: Condensation: Dew, Fog, and Clouds-Picks of clouds on next test- you will have to identifyThe Formation of Dew and FrostDew forms on objects near the ground surface when they cool below the dew point temperature-Basically cloud droplets on the groundMore likely on clear nights due to increased radioactive coolingWhite frost forms when temperature cools below the dew point and the dew point is below 0degrees CelsiusCondensation Nuclei (CCN- cloud condensation nuclei)Particles suspended in the air that around which water condenses or freezesHydrophobic/ hygroscopicMake bad CCN’s -Cannot form cloud droplet purely from saturation, must have something to ‘grow’ aroundGood CCN likes to absorb water, soluble, water loving- hydrophilicSmall ones are more importantSmall (Aitken) Condensation NucleiVery light weight, can float around for long periodHazeDry condensation nuclei (above dew point) reflect water and scatter sunlight’s creating blueish hazeWet condensation nuclei (75% relative humidity) reflect and scatter sunlight creating a grayish or white hazeFog (3 types of fog*)Saturation reached condensation forms a cloud near the groundRadiation fog: ground cools through conduction and radiation; ground fogValley fog created by cold air drainageHigh inversion fog“Steam fog”- found over body of water, about 4-5 ft. highGoes to lowest point, but since specific heat of water is so high (even though it is cold, is warmer than the air around it), therefore air right above the warm water becomes saturatedUpon saturation and relative humidity reaching 100%Then cold air comes in overnight, and cools the air over the pond  resulting in lower relative humidity capacity which makes condensation occur to get humidity back down to 100%Similar to why so foggy in California (Evection Fog)Warm saturated air from the west blows over the cool water of the California cool water cools the air makes it condense due to low relative humidity capacityChapter 5 cont.…-Water vapor = invisible gas-Release pressureAir is cooledRelative humidity goes up (air can hold less) -when air cools it expands (release pressure) -when air heats it condenses (build pressure) -“idiomatic cooling”After dropping match into bottle of water pressurizedTiny particles of burning match formed CCN to which a cloud/ fog could form aroundMade from tiny particles of burning match head before it was extinguished in the waterVapor pressure = partial pressure due to the water vapor in the air -number small= not much water vapor in airSaturation Mixing Ratios of Water Vapor-Saturation vapor pressure- how many molecules of water vapor in cubic centimeter of air -as long as CCN are available- if pressure gets too high- the water vapor can transform into liquid water to decrease the pressureSaturation Vapor PressureSame as equilibrium vapor pressureAmount evaporating is same as what is coming in***Figure on Saturation of water vaporClausius-Clapeyron Equation/RelationSaturation vapor pressure as a function of temperature -as temperature increase- can hold more air/waterTake parcel A and mix with parcel B= average of temp of two  directly cooresponds w how much water vapor it can holdTwo “unsaturated” parcels= forming a supersaturated parcelHelps explain why you can see your breath on cold day- Same amount of moisture in the air- only thing that changes is the ‘ability’ of that air to hold moistureRadiation Fog-last (3rd) type of radiationCloud ClassificationBased on height, or typeHigh cloudsCirrusCirrostratusCirrocumulusMiddle cloudsAltostratusAltocumulusLow CloudsStratusStratocumulusNimbostratusClouds with Vertical DevelopmentCumulusCumulonimbusChapters 5,6,7, and 19 on next ExamDifference in appearanced based on location in skyHigh- (5000-13000m)Middle- (2000m- 7000m)Low- (0-2000m) multiply by about 3 to get feetHigh Cloud examples: Cirrus clouds (white and whispy)Medium Cloud examples:Low Cloud examples: stratus, cumulusCumulus thunder clouds may reach up through multiple layers- but it is where it is first formed/ at the bottom-most layerHigh CloudsCirrus CloudsThink whispyBlown by high winds in the upper level jet stream (above 7k m)Formed by ice crystals being driven by the winds in jet streamCirrocumulus- has more of a puffy shape, can almost see individual puffsStill in high skyRipple-likeTypically cover small part of the skyCirrostratus- very thin sheet of clouds above, kinda hazyCauses “halo” effect of sun (22degree angle)Covers entire skyMiddle Clouds-usually have a root word ‘cumulus’ in themAltocumulusPuffy but thin clouds (hybrid between high and middle clouds)Even puffier than higher clouds (cirrocumulus); as you go lower in atmosphere clouds get puffierIdentify by seeing part of the cloud may appear darker than other onesMost common in middle atmosphere, cover most of skyAltostratusSimilar to ‘cirrostratus’ except clouds are thickerCovers most of sky, almost covers sun (very dim)Low Clouds-clouds that actually produce precipitationStratus cloudUniform thick grey cloudUsually not associated with precipitation (maybe drizzle)NimbostratusMore of a hybrid of a cumulonimbus and a stratus cloudDarker, more violent look than stratusUsually associated with long lasting precipitationStratocumulusIn between a stratus and a cumulusBest time to see them is after a thunder stormDarker puffy clouds that make it look like it it will rain- but isntBasically cumulus but a little more drawn out/elongatedCumulus cloudPuffy low cloud common in summertime in FloridaAs they progress they get taller and taller- grow into other layersForms cumulonimbus cloud- thunderstorm cloudConvective cloudHeat rises- makes the cloud grow and rise higher into the atmosphereFractus Cloud*Little puffs of broken pieces of cloudsSkud= slang termUsually associated with low clouds and thunderstorms- because chaotic in natureMammatus Clouds*Caused by downward motion of airOn side on cumulonimbus or bottom of stratusUsually occur before severe thunderstormLenticularis CloudAlmost like a swirling alien drop ship…Thick, swirling patternIncus/Anvil CloudHigh level clouds that are sheared off of a cirrus cloud that hit jet streamLeading edge of the high cloudPileus CloudAttached to upper part of cumulus cloudLooks like a cap or hoodCastellanusDescribes cumulus in process of becoming thunderstormShowing “vertical development”Tabe 5.4***Know first 4 and last 4 terms***Terms used to identify clouds-Skipping


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