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FSU HFT 2716 - Test #6 Study Guide

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Test 6 Study Guide The Concept and Roots of Globalization o Five Key Definitions Internationalization Liberalization Universalization Westernization Deterritorialization Benefits of Globalization o Increased spread of production o Diffusion of ideas o Technological improvements o Growth and expansion o Increased economic activity o Job creation o Rise of global brands o Increased understanding of the world Criticism of Globalization o Decline in the power of national governments o Polarization of the world in favor of stronger economies o Negative impact in local communities o Imitation of western culture o Environmental degradation Globalization and the Tourism Industry o Tourism is one of the world s largest multinational economic activities o It involves the greatest flow of goods services and people in the world The Influence of Globalization on Tourism o New Opportunities Electronic technology Communication Transportation Sophisticated web sites Forms and Examples of Globalization in Tourism o Formation of International alliances in the airline industry o Hotel cooperation Franchising o Tour operators forms partnerships A New Type of Tourist o Before tourists demanded mass produced items o Today tourists are More globally oriented Depend on information technology Desire for safety Balance between career and family o Responsible green sustainable o Values Community culture ecology education family safety and security Globalization and culture The emergence of globalized consumer culture o High desire for material possessions o High levels of consumption a symbol of good life Global consumer and global products o Consumers have become increasingly similar in their behavior o Eat the same food wear the same brands watch the same T V programs Disappearance of Local Cultures o It is argued that local consumption patterns and global consumers too do exist o Consumption patterns may be globalized if everyone were to adopt others way of life Culture Homogenization o Globalization leads to cultural homogenization o Similar products consumed throughout the world McDonaldization Cocacolonization Product standardization or customization o Consumer purchasing patterns becoming similar o Emergence of global consumers o U S ultimate example of homogeneous country Cultural heterogenization o Increasing emphasis on local cultural elements Language Education Religion Tradition Art Cultural convergence or divergence o Two theories Because of globalization the planet is getting smaller and the cultures are converging The flow of goods assets and knowledge are directed toward main centers of capital Cultural Hybridization o The incorporation of cultural elements from a variety of sources within particular cultural practices o Allows the combination of two identities Cultural Commoditization o Culture transformed into a new form in order to sell IT Cultural artifacts Cultural Deterioration Loss Adaption or Change o Increasing contact between peoples o Communities change their local values and traditions o Authentic elements disappear Is Consumerism a Bad Thing for Tourism o Does not necessarily have to destroy culture o Creates high demand for cultural preservation Globalization and Disappearance of Local Identity o Globalization can destroy socio cultural identity o Farms and fishing villages converted into tourism resorts Glocalization o Blend of globalization and localization o Relationship between global and the local Local Internationalization and Regional Cooperation o May promote direct investment lower transportation costs and distribution costs o North America free trade agreement Benefits and Limitations of Globalization in Tourism o Has increased trade capital generated growth created jobs and boosted development o However it has polarized the world Developing countries have little influence Challenges of globalization in tourism o Businesses operating in different countries must adapt to local environment o Communication difficulties o Different cultures o Political economic and legal practices The Future of Globalization Americanization of Culture Cosmopolitan Culture Cultural Hybridization Cultural Disappearance or Cultural Clash o American consumerism has changed values and patterns of o The American film industry has generated an identity crisis people among poor nations o The world must represent and accept western and non western cultures it must be multicultural Erosion of local cultures o Many societies experience erosion with the increase in international travel Cultural commoditization and transformation o Traditional culture is being packaged and treated as a commodity for sale o Local culture is commercially exploited and the right of locals to own their heritage is lost Cultural hostility o A form of cultural rejection or denial often associated with anger and aggression o They refuse to accept other s view of the world Cultural arrogance o Host population stage cultural experiences to compensate tourists for the lack of real experience o Backstage areas is where locals continue with their traditions Authenticity of tourism experiences o Pseudo Artifacts that are produced and commoditized o Inauthentic products are created o Tourists are often willing to perceive the products as being authentic Renaissance of traditional art forms o Represented arts and crafts o Revival of original traditions Marketing of culture and violation of rights to own cultural heritage o Traditional culture is treated as a commodity o Locals lose their rights o Cultural is turned into a paid performance Cultural change o Occurs as a result of Evolutionary changes within society The way people live Contact between societies Cultural diffusion o The spread of cultural elements such as Ideas Styles Food Religion Technologies Cultural borrowing Cultural drift o Occurs when two cultures come into contact and borrow each other s traditions customs and values o A temporary and random cultural change Language o Behavior may change temporarily for the duration of the tourists visit or brought about through education and technology Acculturation contact o Occurs when individuals from different cultures come into o Individuals may maintain their culture of origin while gaining characteristics of others o Adaption of elements of other cultures o To meet the tourist needs locals change their behavior and Cultural adaption attitude Cultural adjustment o Four different stages tourists go through Honeymoon


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