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FSU HFT 2716 - Africa and the Middle East Study Guide

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Africa and the Middle East Study Guide• Africa is the second largest continent in the world• It is divided into Africa north of the Sahara, the world’s largest desert, and Africa south of the Sahara• Culturally the countries to the north are akin to the Middle East• The Middle Easto Geographically refers to Israel, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan plus the 6 countries of the Arabian Peninsula and the 4 countries in Asiao Politically it also includes the North African countries of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt• The Middle East is in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres• Most travelers come to Turkey and Israel • It borders the Mediterranean and the Black Seas to the north• To the south it borders the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman• Africa is divided by the equator• It has land in all four hemispheres• It is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean Sea and from Asia by the Red Sea• The Atlantic Ocean is to the west and the Indian Ocean is to the eastAfrica• Africa has the world’s longest river – the Nileo It begins at Lake Victoria and runs to the Mediterranean Sea• The Sahara covers 25% of Africa• The tallest mountain is the Kilimanjaro in Tanzania• The Great Rift Valley begins in the Middle East, in Syria, and extends south to Mozambique• Africa is known as the birthplace of the human race• People lived in the Middle East as early as 25,000 B.C.• The Egyptian Civilization rises in the Nile – reached the height of its power about 1400 B.C.• Islam was the next major force in the region from 700 A.D. to the 1100’s• South of the Sahara there were very powerful kingdoms• Centuries of European colonial rule followed the late 1400’s• Zulu’s - largest ethnic group in South Africa – major kingdom• In 1884, European powers met in Berlin to draw the boundaries of their colonies• The Berlin Conference created African nations with no consideration for native cultures• In the 20th Century the countries in the region regained their independence• After WWI the League of Nations divided the Arab lands between Britain and France• During the 1940’s, the Arabs states fought for their independence and Israel became a country• African colonies became independent between 1950 and 1989Morocco• Morocco has great strategic location at the entrance of the Mediterraneano Gateway to Europe• From 1085 played an important part in Muslim domination of Spain• It is larger than California in size• To the south lies the Western Sahara• The Atlas Mountains run southwest to northeast• Tourists visit the four imperial citieso Rabat – with great influence from the French in its architecture is thecapitalo Marrakesh – was founded in 1662. Known as the “Red City” because of the color of its walls and buildings located to the south (most popular)o Meknes – was built to rival Paris after Louis XIV built Versailleso Fez – The most ancient of the imperial cities. Built in the 8th century (second most popular)Egypt• Known as the “Gift of the Nile”• Lower Nile lies to the north of Cairo• South of Cairo is Upper Egypt• The Nile flows north from Sudan• Cairo is the capitalo The city has many tourist attractions and can provide an immersion in Egyptian culture. The Egyptian Museum is a popular attractiono It has a mixed population of Arabs, Turks, Africans and Europeans• Giza is a suburb of Cairo, on the Nile, is the site of the most famous pyramido “The Great Pyramid of Cheops”• The Great Pyramid is the world’s largest single building• The Sphinx is also located at Gizao The face is destroyed because of soldiers that used to shoot at for practice• Memphis – southwest of Cairo, was the first capital of Egypt• Alexandria – second largest city and principal port. Today it is a beach resorto First library built here. Years of storage, fire destroyed it all• Luxor – the country’s most important destination. About 405 miles south of Cairo. Site of Thebes, Egypt’s imperial capital and the Temple of Luxor considered by many as the most important site in the country. The “Valley of the Kings” is across the river from LuxorThe Safari Lands• “Safari” means a journey in Kiswahili, the common language of East Africa• There are two types of safaris, land safaris (minibuses) and wing safaris (airplanes)• The “Safari Lands” run along east Africa from Kenya to South Africa. It includes Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Botswana, Namibia and South Africa• Tanzania is the #1 travel destination – TEST QUESTION!!!Kenya• Kenya’s tourist industry has suffered great losses since 2004, when terrorists launched a missile at a commercial aircraft• Nairobi is the capital. It is one of Africa’s largest cities• Kenya has many national parks including Nairobi National Park within the city limits of the capitalTanzania• Considered the largest country in East Africa• Home to more than 125 tribal groups• Principal attractions include:o Mount Kilimanjaro – Africa’s highest mountaino Ngorongoro Crater – a volcano to the west of Kilimanjaroo Serengeti National Park – noted for its herds of zebras, antelopes and lionso Selous Game Preserve – one of the biggest parks in the world• Considered to be Africa’s number one travel destination• Ernest Hemmingway’s novel – The Snows of Kilimanjaro• Capital is Dodoma• The Ngorongoro Crater is 12 miles in radiuso Animals live in this area and they are completely isolated in the cratero Animal population has remained at a healthy level in this area for a long time, has not become overpopulatedZambia• It is a landlocked country in South Central Africa• Lusaka is the capital• Top attraction is Victoria Falls• Most of the country is covered by bush – a mix of woodland and savannaBotswana• It is also a landlocked country• One of the most desirable safari destinations• Gaborone is the capital and largest city• The Kalahari Desert spreads across the central part of the country• The desert is home to the Bushmeno One of the last hunter/gatherer societies• Chobe National Park is a popular destination with the world’s highest elephant populationNamibia• Windhoek is the capital• Its architecture reflects the past as a German colony• The Namib Desert is one of the world’s oldest and driest deserts• To the north, along the west coast, is the Skeleton Coasto Hot air coming from the


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