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The Great Depression and the Rise of Totalitarianism in EuropeI. Background a. Totalitarianismi. Total powerii. Wield both public and private poweriii. Define themselves as the state1. Hitler2. Stalinb. Authoritariani. Limited powerii. Wields only public poweriii. Seeks advice and defers to others1. Lenin2. Khrushchevc. Three different types of Governmenti. Stalinism1. Stalinii. Socialism1. Hitleriii. Fascism 1. Mussolini II. Mussolini and Fascism in Italy1. Backgrounda. Before the Great War was a socialist b. Entered war on Entente sidei. Wanted land from Austro-Hungaryc. War ended Italians didn’t receive landi. Angry2. Seizure of Powera. Didn’t do anything cleveri. Offered socialist promisesii. Overlookedb. Changed courses- Started to give speeches on change and Fascismi. Vitriolic and Passionatec. Started to become more and more popular and gained followersi. Attracted people from all partiesd. Hated Communism (only for fascism)i. Started telling people communism was going to take over1. Scared the people into following him2. Compared to Louis Napoleone. Black Shirts and Youth Movementsi. Illegal armies formed by Mussolini formed of kids1. Used them to get what he wanted2. Started a revolutionf. The king gave upi. Didn’t want a revolutionii. Appointed Mussolini as head of governmentiii. Greatly weakened parliament but it was still intact3. Regime in Actiona. Targeted kidsi. Used the schooling system to mold children into perfect fascistsii. Wanted to create and new system from the ground upiii. Kept his army of children4. Mussolini’s Weaknessesa. Could never get the population behind himi. No matter how hard he tried they didn’t want to follow himii. Slowly lost poweriii. Barely an Authoritarian5. Hitler and National Socialism in Germanya. Background-i. Born in Austriaii. Served in ww11. Wounded in battleiii. Failed artistiv. Became obsessed with politics1. Wanted to return Germany to its former glory2. Didn’t do very well1. Versailles Treaty a. The effect of war reparations a. Forced Germany to take complete blame for WWIb. Forced to pay 3 trillions dollarsc. Attempting to force Germany into total submissiond. Many leaders tried to helpi. No one could succeed2. It is the Economy…stupida. uber-inflationa. Because of their major debtb. No jobsa. People unable to find workb. Couldn’t feed familiesc. People couldn’t trust the governmentd. Ready for radical ideas3. Hitler’s Road to Powera. Munich Beer Hall Putsch a. Hitler and followers first attempt at starting a revolutioni. failedb. Government was just strong enough to stop itc. Hitler and followers tried and sentenced to three years of prisoni. He used his trial to gain popularity and spread ideasii. Used prison time to write Mein Kampfd. Realized he couldn’t overthrow the gov and decides to undermine itb. The “Rational” Deala. Hitler began putting efforts into creating the National Socialist Parti. Grew wildly popularii. By 1932 it was the largest political party in German parliment (Reichstag)1. 14.5 million votersb. People start growing wary of himi. Decide that the only way to stop him is to make him Chancelor1. Attempt to make his views less radical2. Failed, became more radical4. The Nazi State and Societya. Makes a new electioni. To make Hitler a Dictatorii. People vote nob. Seizes poweri. Arsons parliament building1. Blames fascists and Communists2. People believe him and start to follow him more3. Parliament passes thec. Enabling Acti. Declared Hitler Dictator of Germany5. Changes to Societya. Immediately limits all basic Freedomsi. Speechii. Unionsiii. Assemblyb. Created the KdFi. A huge labor unionii. Had to be a part of it to work1. Way to have complete control over workersiii. Had to be a Nazi to be a part of itc. Re-organized Educationi. Only taught certain types of historyii. No more visionshoft (academic freedom)1. No more intellectuals2. Made opposition almost impossibled. No more BBC radioi. Imperial Radioii. Banned1. Last way of getting outside viewpoints2. Only Nazi Propaganda allowede. Industrial changesi. Built Autobahnii. Created new factoriesiii. Able to stabilize and completely pull Germany out of the depression by 1936f. Versailles Treatyi. Refused to abide by it anymoreii. Stopped paying finesiii. British and French let it go1. Didn’t want to fight2. Were dealing with internal problems from GD3. Didn’t think that Germany was a threatg. Lebensraumi. “Living Space”ii. Expanded Empire1. Took part of Austria2. Attempted to take part of the Czech republic6. International Responsea. Appeasementa. British and French do nothingb. Thought by appeasing him he would stop and they could contain himi. Very wrongKey Terms:Strength through Joy (KdF)- Large labor Union formed by Hitler to control the workers in Germany, had to be in it to work and had to be a Nazi to join.Lebensraum- “Living Space” The Expansion of Germany into EuropeMein Kampf- Book Hitler wrote while in prison. Stated all his ideas on making a better worldEnabling Act- Act passed by the German Parliament (Reichstag) that declared Hitler the dictator of GermanyDie Fuhrer- “The Leader”- What Hitler referred to himself asReichstag- The German Parlimentuber-inflation- Three year period that Germany paid France and Britain for losing the Great WarWeimar- City in Germany that served as the meeting place of the National Socialist PartBlack Shirts- Mussolini’s army of Children he used to enforce his policies and hold on to powerFascism- a governmental system led by a dictator having complete power, forcibly suppressing opposition and criticism, regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., and emphasizing an aggressive nationalism and often racism.The Second World War 1939-1945I. Phase One in Europe (1939-1942)A. Hitler’s Western European Empire1. German/USSR Non-aggression Pacta. Made a non-aggression pact with Russiab. Said they would split Poland and Lithuania c. Lasted a few months2. Collapse of Polanda. First country Hitler invadedi. Invaded with tanksb. Completely took overc. Thought he was dont3. Fall of France and most of Western Europea. Invaded France Secondi. Got held upb. Dunkirk Evacuation i. British and French able to Evacuate men from the Beaches of Dunkirkii. Over 80% of British and French armies were savedc. Marechal Petain and Vichy Francei. Petain (leader of France)1. Ultimately surrendered to Hitler2. Createdii. Vichy France1. Government in France the collaborated with the axis powers2. Let

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