DREXEL PSY 310 - Caffeine (6 pages)

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Caffeine



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Caffeine

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Pages:
6
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
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Caffeine Caffeine Most widely used psychoactive drug Many individuals use daily Belongs to a class of chemicals known as xanthines There is evidence that caffeine Can cause dependence Interfere with normal functioning Three Main Sources Three plants containing xanthines have been used by humans for thousands of years Coffee from the Middle East Tea first grown in China Cacao from the Americas All three played and continue to play important cultural and economic roles Coffee History Origin of coffee use Ethiopia Legend Kaldi a goat herder and his goats ate coffee berries and danced The practice then spread to 1400s Egypt and other Arabic countries 1500s Throughout the Middle East 1600s Europe 17th 18th century England coffeehouses spread penny universities a location to listen and learn from literary and political figures England 1674 The Women s Petition Against Coffee argued against the use of coffee on the grounds that it made men impotent Consumption In the U S Use increased following taxation of tea and the American Revolution To drink tea was to be a Tory Use increased during and after Prohibition Use Peaked in 1946 Declined perhaps due to increased soft drink consumption Current annual use is about 23 gallons of coffee per person Processing and Storage Originally individuals chewed on coffee beans or put raw beans in hot water Later discovered that roasting improved the flavor of the drink Coffeehouses and individuals originally roasted and ground their own beans 1790 New York Commercial roasting 1900 Vacuum packing for long term storage of ground coffee Growing and Trade 1696 Dutch began cultivation in East Indies Then Latin America became world s largest producer Virtually all coffee is made from two species caffea Arabica milder flavor takes longer to develop after planting and requires a near tropical climate to grow caffea robusta stronger and more bitter flavor and a higher caffeine content used in less expensive blends Currently about half of coffee in the U S comes from Latin America The rest comes from Vietnam Indonesia and Thailand Over 5 billion was imported to the US in 2008 Decaffeinated Coffee Processes to remove caffeine from the coffee bean include Soaking unroasted beans in an organic solvent removes the caffeine o This is the most common method in the U S Alternative Swiss water process not widely used o It removes more of the coffee s flavor Caffeine removed from coffee is used in soft drinks Coca Cola owns one of the largest decaffeinating companies Variety of Coffee Drinks A large variety of products in the supermarket and coffee shops Black coffee espresso cappuccino latte Turkish half caf iced flavored The number of specialty coffee shop increased from 200 1980 to 25 000 2010 Caffeine Content Type Brewed drip 5 oz Brewed percolator 5 oz Instant 5 oz Decaffeinated brewed 5 oz Decaffeinated instant 5 oz Average caffeine content 115 80 65 3 2 Tea History Origin of tea China Camellia sinensis an evergreen Legend Daruma the founder of Zen Buddhism cut off his eyelids to remain awake while meditating o New plant grew where his eyelids touched the earth o Leaves from that plant made a stimulating drink AD 350 Evidence for medicinal use AD 780 Evidence for nonmedical use 1610 Dutch delivered tea to Europe 17th century English East India Company Imported tea from China Created a monopoly in England In Britain major marketing campaigns promoted the switch from coffee to tea The American Revolution Before the Revolution American colonists were committed tea drinkers Anger over a tax on tea Taxation without representation The Boston Tea Party 1773 Revolution helped tea sales in England To be a tea drinker was to be loyal to the Crown Production Tea is grown in China Sri Lanka India and Indonesia Tea leaves are picked by hand One worker 10 pounds of tea per day Tea leaves are then Dried Rolled to crush the cells in the leaves Placed in a cool damp place for fermentation oxidation Varieties Of Tea Black tea fully oxidized leaves Green tea nonoxidized leaves Oolong tea greenish brown and consists of partially oxidized leaves Iced tea 75 percent of all tea consumed in the U S Flavored teas mixtures of tea and mint spices or other flavors Herbal teas contain a mix of plant leaves and flowers but no actual tea Caffeine Content Pound for pound tea has more caffeine than coffee however 1 pound of tea leaves 200 cups of tea 1 pound of coffee 50 to 60 cups of coffee Tea has about 40 to 60 mg of caffeine per cup depending on the type and strength of the brew Theophylline is another xanthine found in tea Very small amounts In high doses theophylline is used as an asthma medication Chocolate History Origin of chocolate Mesoamerica Theobroma means food of the gods Legend Cacao tree was a gift to humans from paradise from the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl Aztecs cultivated cacao widely The cacao bean was an important part of their economy and culture Chocolatl Was a thick bitter liquid flavored with vanilla From the Mayan words choc warm and latl beverage 16th century Cortez introduced chocolate into Europe Chocolate drinking spread slowly 17th century Chocolate sold alongside coffee and tea in established coffeehouses Processing Prior to 1828 the traditional Aztec process was used Cacao pods were dried in the sun then roasted to remove the husk Kernels were ground to obtain a thick liquid baking chocolate 1828 Dutch patent issued for a process that removes about two thirds of the fat cocoa butter and produces a powder A mixture of cocoa butter sugar and chocolate powder can be formed into slabs or bars 1876 Milk chocolate introduced by the Swiss Xanthine Content Theobromine A xanthine unique to chocolate Similar to caffeine but much less potent CNS effects An average cup of cocoa contains 200 mg Caffeine An average cup of cocoa contains 4 mg Other Sources Of Caffeine Soft Drinks Coca Cola Developed as a nerve tonic in the late 1800s ingredients included o Caffeine o Cocaine in small amounts Named for two flavoring agents coca leaves and cola kola nuts Today the coca leaves are decocainized before being shipped to the Coca Cola plant Other soft drinks U S per capita soft drink consumption is about 45 gallons per year Energy drinks Now compete with soft drinks for the market Over the counter medications Example Vivarin Comparison Of Caffeine Content Item Brewed coffee Instant coffee Decaffeinated coffee Tea Cocoa Diet Coke Pepsi One Mountain Dew Jolt Red Bull Milk chocolate bar Dark


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