DREXEL PSY 310 - Caffeine (6 pages)

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Caffeine



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Caffeine

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Pages:
6
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior

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Caffeine Caffeine Most widely used psychoactive drug Many individuals use daily Belongs to a class of chemicals known as xanthines There is evidence that caffeine Can cause dependence Interfere with normal functioning Three Main Sources Three plants containing xanthines have been used by humans for thousands of years Coffee from the Middle East Tea first grown in China Cacao from the Americas All three played and continue to play important cultural and economic roles Coffee History Origin of coffee use Ethiopia Legend Kaldi a goat herder and his goats ate coffee berries and danced The practice then spread to 1400s Egypt and other Arabic countries 1500s Throughout the Middle East 1600s Europe 17th 18th century England coffeehouses spread penny universities a location to listen and learn from literary and political figures England 1674 The Women s Petition Against Coffee argued against the use of coffee on the grounds that it made men impotent Consumption In the U S Use increased following taxation of tea and the American Revolution To drink tea was to be a Tory Use increased during and after Prohibition Use Peaked in 1946 Declined perhaps due to increased soft drink consumption Current annual use is about 23 gallons of coffee per person Processing and Storage Originally individuals chewed on coffee beans or put raw beans in hot water Later discovered that roasting improved the flavor of the drink Coffeehouses and individuals originally roasted and ground their own beans 1790 New York Commercial roasting 1900 Vacuum packing for long term storage of ground coffee Growing and Trade 1696 Dutch began cultivation in East Indies Then Latin America became world s largest producer Virtually all coffee is made from two species caffea Arabica milder flavor takes longer to develop after planting and requires a near tropical climate to grow caffea robusta stronger and more bitter flavor and a higher caffeine content used in less expensive blends Currently about half of coffee in



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