DREXEL PSY 310 - Chapter 13- Opioids (6 pages)

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Chapter 13- Opioids



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Chapter 13- Opioids

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Pages:
6
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior

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Chapter 13 Opioids Opium is a naturally occurring substance derived from the poppy plant Papaver somniferum Opium has a 6 000 year history of medical use Opioids are either Drugs derived directly from opium or Synthetic drugs with opium like effects Major effects of opioids relieves pain and suffering delivers pleasure and relief from anxiety Opium Cultivation Opium is collected for only a few days of the plant s life Opium harvesters make shallow cuts into the unripe seedpods The resinous substance that oozes from the cuts is scraped and collected Opium products Morphine extracted from raw opium Heroin is derived from morphine History of Opium Egypt 1500 BC Ebers papyrus described medical uses Greece Had an important role in medicine Arabic world Opium used as a social drug Physicians wrote widely about use of opium and described opioid dependence Europe Opium used widely beginning in the sixteenth century Physicians developed a preparation called laudanum a combination of strained opium and other ingredients Writers and Opium 1821 Thomas De Quincey Confessions of an English Opium Eater Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Samuel Taylor Coleridge famously used opium The Opium Wars 1729 Opium smoking outlawed in China But smuggling was widespread British East India Company was involved in opium trade Legally in India and illicitly but indirectly in China Pressure grew and eventually war broke out between the British and Chinese Morphine Morphine is the primary active ingredient in opium First isolated in 1806 Named morphium after Morpheus the god of dreams 10 times as potent as opium Codeine is a secondary active alkaloid First isolated in 1832 Named codeine from the Greek word for poppy head Morphine use spread due to two developments Technological development o 1853 Hypodermic syringe allowed delivery of morphine directly into the blood Political development o Widespread use during war provided relief from pain and dysentery Veterans returned dependent on morphine



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