DREXEL PSY 310 - Chapter 14- Hallucinogens (7 pages)

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Chapter 14- Hallucinogens



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Chapter 14- Hallucinogens

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School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
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Chapter 14 Hallucinogens Animism and Religion Animism Objects attain certain characteristics because of spirits If a plant contains a spirit then eating the plant transfers this spirit to the person who consumes it Psychoactive plants that alter perceptions May have been important in the development of spiritual and religious traditions and folklore in many societies Terminology Phantastica Drugs that create a world of fantasy Psychedelic Mind viewing Implies a beneficial visionary type of effect Psychotomimetic Mimicking psychosis Produces hallucinations and altered reality a state similar to psychosis Entheogen Substances that create spiritual or religious experiences Entactogen Substances that enhance feelings of empathy Hallucinogens A drug that produces profound alterations in perception including unusual visual sensations and often changes in the perception of one s own body Classification Hallucinogens can be classified by Chemical structure Known pharmacological properties How much loss of awareness they cause How dangerous they are Two major groups Phantastica o Alter perceptions while allowing the user to remain in communication with the present world Deliriants o Produce more mental confusion greater clouding of consciousness and a loss of touch with reality Two Groups of Phantastica Indole hallucinogens Drugs that have the same basic indole structure of the neurotransmitter serotonin Examples LSD psilocybin Catechol hallucinogens Drugs that have the same basic catechol structure of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine Examples mescaline MDMA Ecstasy Indole Hallucinogens Phantastica LSD Discovery 1938 Synthesized by Dr Albert Hofmann of Sandoz Laboratories in Switzerland 1943 Dr Hofmann took a large dose and described its hallucinogenic effects Dose was 5 8 times the normal effective dose Potency of the drug attracted attention Comparable effects from mescaline would require 4 000 times the dose Early Research 1950s 1970s a tremendous amount of LSD research Attempting to develop a model of psychosis Widely used as an adjunct to psychotherapy 1970s Funding institutes stopped supporting human research Most research since 1975 has been conducted with animals in an effort to understand the mechanism at the neural level Secret Army CIA Research Poorly done and violated many ethical codes U S required to pay reparations to research subjects Recreational Use Timothy Leary Conducted research on LSD and psilocybin at Harvard Research was scientifically unsound and unethical Started a religion League of Spiritual Discovery with LSD as a sacrament Recreational use peaked in late 1960s Use declined due to anecdotal reports of problems associated with bad trips prolonged psychotic reactions worries about possible chromosome damage self injurious behavior flashbacks Pharmacology One of the most potent psychoactive drugs No known human overdose deaths LD50 is about 400 times the behaviorally effective dose LSD is usually taken orally Absorbed rapidly through the gastrointestinal tract Mechanism of action Best evidence indicates that LSD acts by stimulating serotonin 2A receptors Metabolism Metabolized by the liver Half life is about three hours Tolerance develops rapidly Within three to four days of daily doses Recovery from tolerance is also rapid Cross tolerance occurs among LSD mescaline and psilocybin Physical dependence to LSD or other hallucinogens has not been demonstrated Psychological and Behavioral Effects Modification of perception Visual images Users see shapes and patterns usually with intense colors and brightness Users report an altered sense of time changes in the perception of their own bodies and alterations of auditory input Synesthesia mixing of senses o Example sounds may appear as visual images Enhanced emotionality Images may be perceived as beautiful and awe inspiring or as intensely sad or frightening Time Course Typically last six to nine hours First 20 min Autonomic responses occur Next 30 40 min Alterations in mood perception and sensation begin Within 1 hour Full intoxication occurs Loss of self awareness and loss of control of behavior may occur Adverse Reactions Impossible to determine true incidence of adverse reactions For example some bad reactions may be due to drug impurities Flashbacks DSM IV TR Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder Recurrence of symptoms weeks or months after an individual has taken LSD Relative rare in occurrence Panic reactions Relatively more common in occurrence Psilocybin Several varieties of magic mushrooms Psilocybe mexicana is the most well known Psilocybin is primary active ingredient 1958 Albert Hofmann isolated psilocybin Dried mushrooms are 0 2 0 5 percent psilocybin Acute and Long Term Effects Over the past decade research has increased Recent studies have investigated the drug s effects on feelings of spirituality Acute effects Psilocybin dose dependently induces intense changes in mood perception and thought Most individuals describe the effects as pleasurable At high doses can cause anxiety Chronic effects Relatively little is known One study indicated no long term impairment Other Indole Hallucinogens Morning Glories Hawaiian Baby Woodroses Dimethyltryptamine DMT Ayahuasca Catechol Hallucinogens Phantastica Mescaline Peyote A small spineless carrot shaped cactus Mescaline is primary active ingredient Synthesized in 1918 More than 30 psychoactive compounds have been identified in peyote Cultural Use Native American Church uses peyote as a sacrament Church is an amalgamation of Christianity and traditional beliefs and practices of Native Americans Legal issues 1990 Supreme Court ruled that Oregon could prosecute its citizens for using peyote 1994 U S Congress passed an law stating that no Indian shall be penalized for peyote use for legitimate traditional uses Pharmacology Rapidly absorbed after oral administration Metabolism Most mescaline is excreted unchanged Half life is about 6 hours Psychological and behavioral effects Low dose effects are primarily euphoric Higher doses cause the full set of hallucinogenic effects Tolerance develops more slowly to mescaline than to LSD Cross tolerance between LSD and mescaline Amphetamine Derivatives Large group of synthetic hallucinogens Chemically related to amphetamines Anecdotally effects are similar to mescaline But the chemical structure is close to the amphetamines Examples MDMA Ecstasy MDA DOM History Prior to 1985 Some psychiatrists used it as a


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