DREXEL PSY 310 - Intro and Overview (10 pages)

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Intro and Overview



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Intro and Overview

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Pages:
10
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
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Introduction to PSY310 Drugs and Human Behavior Psychopharmacology study of psychoactive drugs as related to mind brain behavior and society Major subdiscipline of the fastest growing science today neuroscience study of the brain and nervous system Learned more about the brain the past 10 years than we have in all of time All psychoactive drugs work through actions on the brain psychopharmacology has taken advantage of this Witnessing advances in the study of psychopharmacology to treat addictions and mental disorders and to alleviate the suffering of so many people Advances in drug addiction as a brain disease Advances in treatment of mental disorders Help relate the latest info on psychoactive drugs to their effect on society and human behavior Students will have a deeper understanding of the individual problems and the social conflicts that arise when people misuse abuse psychoactive drugs Also will give you a greater appreciation of the newer developments to treat mental disorders more effectively Intent to become more informed about the factors that may underlie drug use and introduce you to the controversies surrounding drugs and society Overview for Units 1 to 3 Module I All content of our course 3 main modules each represents a major content area 1 Foundations background and general principles of psychopharmacology Foundations 3 weekly units each deal with specific chapters in the text 2 Specific drugs of abuse 4 weekly units 3 Psychotherapeutic drugs 3 weekly units Chapter 1 1 1 Drug Categories Unit 1 What happens after a drug is taken Major classes of drugs that will be explored in different units of modules 2 and 3 Opening chapter addresses basic principles of pharmacology and explores the area of pharmacokinetics how the drug moves into through and out of the body after it is taken through different roots 1 2 Different ways that drugs are taken advantages and disadvantages The way a drug is taken not only influences the way it is handled by the body but also influences how it works and therefore how effective it will be 1 3 Pharmacokinetic Factors that Determine Bioavailability of Drugs This idea from 1 1 is shown much more clearly here Once a drug is in the stomach if taken orally how and why does it gain access to the bloodstream Once in bloodstream how is it distributed through the body Evenly or not How is distribution reflected in the actions of the drug How does the body eventually get rid of the drug 1 4 Two principal types of receptors Chapter 1 also explores the area of pharmacodynamics Examines the interaction between drugs and receptors to which the drug will attach It also looks at how the attachment will result in changes of the function of the cell and in result changes in behaviors Drugs are described structurally and functionally and how the drugs alter the receptor structure and function is discussed The way such actions underlie the therapeutic effects and side effects are illustrated Difference between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics Pharmacokinetics what the body does to drugs Pharmacodynamics what drugs do to the body Drug tolerance state of progressively decreasing responsiveness to a drug Larger dose of drug is required to achieve the effect that was originally obtained by a smaller dose Three mechanisms of chronic drug action 1 drug disposition or metabolism pharmacological mechanism 2 Pharmacodynamic tolerance pharmacological mechanism 3 Behavioral tolerance 1 5 Some of the most important characteristics of tolerance 1 6 Type of tolerance that is shown by the different drugs we will study this semester Few exposures to some drugs amphetamine or cocaine can produce increased responsiveness rather than the typical diminished effects of tolerance this increased responsiveness with using a drug repeatedly can possibly last for weeks months or longer Sensitization increases in strength after the last dose These sensitized changes can be due to neurochemical changes in the brain Compulsive use of cocaine is related to the increased responsiveness as well as to the craving of cocaine over time Chapter 2 2 1 Principal Parts of Neurons Structure of an individual nerve cell 2 2 Summation of Local Potentials Electrical and chemical processes involved in the transmission of neurons Besides the structure of the neuron and its electrochemical processes we need to know about how these individual nerve cells form the complex circuit that represent the anatomical basis for behavior 2 3 Divisions of the Central Nervous System 2 4 Ventral View of the Human Brain Major structures that are important in the brain Chapter 2 will review structure of the nerve cells electrochemical properties of neurons and anatomy of the nervous system Try to apply this knowledge in understanding the brain as the substrate by which action of psychoactive drugs can be understood Chapter 3 3 1 Comparison of Synaptic Versus Endocrine Communication Helps to see about 2 types of chemical signals in the brain that are important for homeostasis Neurotransmitters Hormones Psychoactive drugs work either by changing neurotransmitters changing the availability how much is present at the synapse point of connection between 2 neurons work directly by interacting with the receptor for the neurotransmitter 3 2 Processes Involved in Neurotransmission at Typical Synapse Using Classical Neurotransmitter 3 3 Summary of the Mechanisms by which Drugs can Alter Synaptic Transmission 3 2 and 3 3 show how neurotransmitters are important in the action of drugs 3 3 see different aspects of neurotransmitter function at the synapse that can be altered by different drugs 3 4 Substance abuse as a brain disease and asking how psychopharmacologists do their work Methods that psychopharmacologists employ in the conduct of their work substance of ch 4 Look at addiction as it occurs due to various neuroadaptive changes that are present in different circuits in the brain ch 8 Explosion of neuroscientific knowledge over the last 2 decades has been accompanied by a variety of new analytical tools to look inside the brain to look where and how drugs are working Chapter 4 4 1 Ch 4 will give us an overview of the different neurobiological techniques for looking at the nervous system Also look at the techniques in behavioral pharmacology that have allowed scientists to look at the relationship between psychoactive drugs and behavior in particular the drug administration paradigm further explained in 4 2 and 4 3 4 2


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