DREXEL PSY 310 - Tobacco (6 pages)

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Tobacco



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Tobacco

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Pages:
6
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
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Tobacco The Tobacco Dilemma A legal product used by a significant proportion of adults But a substance responsible for more adverse health consequences and death than any other drug Early History Cultivated and used by Native Americans for centuries Presented tobacco leaves as a gift to Columbus in 1492 The word tobaco was adopted by the Spanish Possibly from the Arabic word tabbaq meaning medicinal herbs Early Medical Uses 1500s Recognition of the medical potential grew French physician Jean Nicot early proponent Nicotine the active ingredient and Nicotiana the plant genus were named after him 16th and 17th centuries Viewed as having many positive medical uses but as having a negative reproductive effect 1890s Nicotine dropped from the U S Pharmacopoeia Two Major Species Two major species grown today out of more than 60 Nicotiana tobacum large leaf species indigenous only to South America but now cultivated widely Nicotiana rustica small leaf species from the West Indies and eastern North America Types Of Tobacco Products Snuff 18th century Snuff use became widespread as smoking decreased In U S perceived as a British product American use declined after the Revolution Chewing tobacco 19th century Most tobacco used in the U S was chewing tobacco Smoking did not surpass chewing until the 1920s Cigars A combination of chewing and smoking Peaked in popularity in 1920 Cigarettes Native Americans used thin reeds filled with tobacco Factories appeared in 19th century Habit spread widely with the advent of inexpensive machine produced cigarettes Currently most popular form of tobacco use History Cigarettes Product milestones 1913 Camels low priced domestic tobacco 1939 Pall Mall king size cigarettes 1954 Winston filter cigarettes Filter cigarettes have over 90 of the U S cigarette market Tobacco Under Attack 1604 King James of England published an anti tobacco pamphlet harmefull to the braine dangerous to the lungs Note that he also supported the American tobacco trade 1908 New York made it illegal for a woman to use tobacco in public protect women from themselves 1930s and 40s Reports linking smoking and cancer 1952 Readers Digest article Cancer by the Carton Tobacco companies response Formation of the Council for Tobacco Research o Not independent and tried to undermine health risk claims Mass marketing of filter cigarettes and cigarettes with lowered tar and nicotine content o Promoted as a safer alternative 1964 Surgeon General s report states that smoking causes lung cancer in men Tobacco sales began a decline that continued for 40 years 1965 Congress required warning labels on cigarette packages 1971 TV and radio cigarette ads banned 1990 Smoking banned on interstate buses and domestic airline flights 1995 FDA proposed further regulation of tobacco and ads Many additional state and local bans passed Lawsuits seeking compensation for the health consequences of smoking Unsuccessful for many years Then several victories 1998 settlement between 46 states and major tobacco companies 205 billion in payments to the states Advertising regulations Enforcement of laws prohibiting sales to minors Possible reasons for legal victories Changing legal climate Revelation of tobacco companies actions in hiding information on the adverse effects of smoking Quest for Safer Cigarettes Lower levels of nicotine Caveat people adjust their smoking behavior to obtain a consistent amount of nicotine By taking more puffs and inhaling more deeply Lower levels of tar Tar is the sticky brown material seen on the filter of a smoked cigarette Based on changes in smoking behavior there may be no advantage to switching to a low tar low nicotine cigarette Does safer mean safe Current Cigarette Use Percentage of smokers by gender Men 25 Women 21 Education is the single biggest influence on smoking rates Percentage of smokers by education o High school diploma only 30 o Undergraduate degree 13 o Full time college students 7 o Non college students 15 Smokeless Tobacco 1970s use increased as smokers looked for an alternative with a lower risk of lung cancer Most common form Moist snuff Skoal Copenhagen Nicotine absorbed through mucous membranes Advantages over cigarettes Unlikely to cause lung cancer Less expensive More socially acceptable in some circumstances Smokeless tobacco has its hazards Smokeless tobacco packages carry warning labels Health concerns Increased risk of dental disease and oral cancer Contains potent carcinogens such as nitrosamines o Causes leukoplakia Can lead to nicotine dependence Other Tobacco Products In recent years cigar smoking has increased In 2008 9 of males and 2 of females reported smoking a cigar in the past month Hookahs Large ornate water pipes imported from Arab countries Hookahs produce milder water filtered tobacco smoke Prevalence of hookah smoking is unclear Smoking Adverse Health Effects Major diseases linked to smoking Lung cancer Cardiovascular disease Chronic obstructive lung diseases o including emphysema Risk increases for those who Start young Smoke many cigarettes Continue to smoke for a long time Smoking is the single greatest avoidable cause of death Cigarette packages and advertisements are required to rotate among different warning labels Secondhand Smoke Secondhand smoke Cigarette smoke inhaled from the environment by nonsmokers Components of environmental smoke Mainstream smoke the smoke inhaled exhaled by the smoker Sidestream smoke the smoke rising from the ash of a cigarette o More carcinogens in smoke o But smoke is more diluted Health effects difficult to fully determine but include Lung cancer Cardiovascular disease 1993 Environmental Protection Agency classified secondhand smoke as a known human carcinogen Many recent laws and regulations have been passed to protect nonsmokers Smoking and Health In Other Countries Five million deaths worldwide each year Perhaps as high as 8 million by 2030 Demand for American cigarettes in Asia has increased markedly Demand has also increased in Third World countries Smoking and Pregnancy Increased risk of Miscarriage Low birth weight Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS Several studies indicate effects on physiological and cognitive development Neurological problems problems with reading and mathematical skills hyperactivity Nicotine Pharmacology Nicotine Active ingredient in tobacco A naturally occurring liquid alkaloid that is colorless and volatile Tolerance and dependence develop quickly Highly toxic in large enough


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