DREXEL PSY 310 - Opiates- Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (2 pages)

Previewing page 1 of 2 page document View the full content.
View Full Document

Opiates- Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow



Previewing page 1 of actual document.

View the full content.
View Full Document
View Full Document

Opiates- Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow

53 views


Pages:
2
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
Unformatted text preview:

Opiates Yesterday Today and Tomorrow NIH Fact Sheet on Heroin Addiction http www nih gov about researchresultsforthepublic index htm Thirty Plus Years Ago In the 1960s the most popular form of treatment for heroin addiction was Civil Commitment which essentially placed heroin addicts in prison camps After use of heroin and other drugs skyrocketed methadone was tested and found to be an effective treatment for opiate addiction In the early 1970s public concern over veterans returning from Vietnam with heroin addiction prompted the government to establish a nationwide network of methadone treatment clinics By the 1980s heroin use was known to be associated with premature mortality but the mechanisms were unknown The emergence of AIDS gave new urgency to the need to treat heroin addicts among whom HIV infection spread rampantly through the sharing of contaminated injection equipment Today The discovery of opiate receptors along with enkephalin and endorphins the naturally occurring chemicals that bind to them marked a watershed event in neuroscience for understanding the effects of drugs in the brain We now have a much better understanding of the opioid system s role in regulating pain mood and other brain functions We understand addiction to opiates and other drugs as being a chronic relapsing disease with a wide range of serious medical consequences These science advances enabled the development of better compounds for treating opiate addiction Medications are an important element of treatment for many patients addicted to opiates especially when combined with counseling and other behavioral therapies Naltrexone an opioid receptor blocker was added to the medications toolbox in 1984 It was highly effective in reversing the effects of heroin overdose but its use to achieve abstinence was hampered by poor treatment adherence Naltrexone is an effective medication for some opiate addicts and some patients with co occurring alcohol dependence Instead of competing with heroin for the opiate receptor naltrexone prevents heroin from binding to the receptor thereby preventing heroin from eliciting the euphoric high Methadone is a successful treatment option but is limited because it is only available through specialized treatment clinics Methadone is an agonist that like heroin binds to opiate receptors Unlike heroin however methadone does not produce the same level of euphoria Methadone is very effective in helping individuals addicted to heroin or other opiates stabilize their lives and reduce their illicit drug use Levo alpha acetylmethadol LAAM is also very effective in helping individuals addicted to heroin or other opiates stabilize their lives and reduce their illicit drug use and it works for a longer period of time than methadone and therefore cuts down on the adherence and cost problems Buprenorphine the latest tool available for opioid detoxification and relapse prevention can now be prescribed in the privacy of a doctor s office A novel formulation combining buprenorphine with the opiate blocker naloxone discourages its abuse Recent evidence reveals a growing willingness on the part of community treatment programs to use buprenorphine for opiate detoxification signaling a cultural shift toward greater acceptance of pharmacotherapies among treatment providers Tomorrow Preempting harm from opiate addiction Broader acceptance that heroin addiction is a chronic brain disease will help erase stigma permit a more accurate assessment of disease prevalence identify those with increased vulnerability and improve the rate of treatment seeking By moving forward with this multi pronged approach we will close the heroin treatment gap currently more than 800 000 of an estimated 1 million heroin addicts do not seek nor receive any form of treatment for their addiction Early interventions and treatments that work will also help stem the tide of growing prescription drug abuse particularly problematic among adolescents and young adults Researchers are getting closer to developing a new generation of non opioid based pain medications that would circumvent the brain reward pathways greatly reducing their abuse potential Predictive and personalized approaches Scientists are taking advantage of powerful genomic tools to identify genes that predispose people to or protect them from addiction Understanding key genetic differences will revolutionize the way we recognize and protect people with an increased biological risk for addiction Tomorrow we will be able to treat patients according to their specific genotypes Improving adherence to addiction treatment The availability of dramatically improved pharmacological and behavioral therapy options will help narrow the treatment gap For example new long acting depot formulations of naltrexone and buprenorphine because they are released slowly e g one dose can last 6 8 weeks lend to better compliance NIH developed a depot formulation of naltrexone in partnership with industry This depot version may be an attractive option for use in certain settings including the criminal justice system and countries reluctant to use currently available therapies


View Full Document

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Opiates- Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Opiates- Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?