DREXEL PSY 310 - Depressants and Inhalants (6 pages)

Previewing pages 1, 2 of 6 page document View the full content.
View Full Document

Depressants and Inhalants



Previewing pages 1, 2 of actual document.

View the full content.
View Full Document
View Full Document

Depressants and Inhalants

55 views


Pages:
6
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
Unformatted text preview:

Depressants and Inhalants Depressants A class of drugs that decrease CNS activity Have a widespread effect in the brain As a group also called sedative hypnotics Sedatives treat anxiety Hypnotics treat insomnia Widely used depressants include Alcohol Benzodiazepines prescription History Before Barbiturates Chloral hydrate knockout drops Mickey Finn Synthesized in 1832 used clinically in 1870 Induces sleep in less than an hour Repeated use leads to gastric irritation Paraldehyde Synthesized in 1829 used clinically in 1882 Effective with a wide safety margin Noxious taste and odor Bromides Widely used as a sleep agent in patent medicines Remained in OTC drugs through the 1960s Accumulates in the body and cause toxic effects Barbiturates First introduced in 1903 So popular and useful that over 2500 examples were synthesized Popular barbiturates included phenobarbital amobarbital and secobarbital Grouped based on the time of onset and duration of activity Short acting and rapid onset used to induce sleep and often prescribed in high doses Long acting and delayed onset used to reduce anxiety and often prescribed in low doses Examples of Barbiturates Short acting pentobarbital secobarbital Time of onset 15 minutes Duration of action 2 to 3 hours Intermediate acting amobarbital butabarbital Time of onset 30 minutes Duration of action 5 to 6 hours Long acting mephobarbital phenobarbital Time of onset 1 hour Duration of action 8 hours or longer Concerns About Barbiturates Overdose Deaths Intentional and accidental Caused by respiratory depression Abuse and dependence Reinforcing effects of a drug are related to the rapidity of onset of effects Short acting drugs are more likely to lead to psychological dependence Concerns led to search for safer medications Meprobamate Widely prescribed beginning in the 1950s Used as an anxiolytic Like barbiturates can produce psychological and physical dependence Still available as a prescription drug However largely replaced by benzodiazepines Methaqualone Other names Brand Quaalude or Sopor Slang ludes or sopors Despite problems in other countries drug was introduced in the U S 1965 Package insert read Addiction potential not established Physicians overprescribed thinking the drug was a safe alternative to barbiturates Widely misused and abused Scheduling history 1973 Schedule II 1985 Schedule I Benzodiazepines First introduced in 1960 Chlordiazepoxide Librium the first commercially marketed benzodiazepine Reduces anxiety without inducing sleep Much larger safety margin than barbiturates Physical dependence was rare Overdose was rare only when combined with other depressants like alcohol 1970s Diazepam Valium became the best seller among all prescription drugs However dependence and overdose can occur Dose level and time course are critical factors Overdose deaths more likely for drugs sold in higher doses Psychological dependence more likely with drugs that have a rapid onset of effects Physical dependence more likely with drugs that have a short duration of action Are benzodiazepines safer than barbiturates More differences among drugs within each class Fewer differences between these two classes of drugs Rohypnol A 1990s version of a Mickey Finn Produces profound intoxication when mixed with alcohol Reportedly used as a date rape drug Slipped into drinks 1997 change in the formulation causes a distinctive color when dissolved in a drink Nonbenzodiazepine Hypnotics Z drugs Similar to benzodiazepines but with a different chemical structure Zolpidem Ambien became the most widely prescribed hypnotic Short duration Rapid onset Initially thought to be safer than benzodiazepines Withdrawal symptoms have been reported Mechanism of Action Benzodiazepines and barbiturates Bind with receptors on GABA receptor complex Separate binding site for barbiturates and benzodiazepines Enhances the normally inhibitory effects of GABA Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics Entirely new class of drugs that may selectively bind to different sites on the receptor complex Beneficial Uses As anxiolytics Sedatives often prescribed to reduce anxiety Four benzodiazepines are among the top 100 most commonly prescribed medications in the United States o Xanax o Ativan o Klonopin o Valium As hypnotics Sedatives at large enough doses decrease sleep onset time About a third of American adults report trouble sleeping As anticonvulsants Barbiturates and benzodiazepines may be prescribed for seizure disorders epilepsies Concerns Anxiolytics Sedatives are not appropriate for all anxiety disorders Example OCD or specific phobias Overprescribed Most sedatives are not prescribed by psychiatrists Most patients do not have a clearly defined anxiety disorder or physical ailment Hypnotics Concerns about the nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics include Sleepwalking Sleep eating Driving while in a semi waking state In 2008 all hypnotic drugs were required to carry a safety label Anticonvulsants Potential concerns Tolerance can make it difficult to find a dose that is effective but doesn t cause excessive drowsiness Abrupt withdrawal is likely to cause seizures Dependence Liability Psychological dependence Especially associated with short acting sedatives Physical dependence Withdrawal syndrome is similar to alcohol and potentially life threatening Barbiturate withdrawal symptoms o anxiety insomnia tremulousness weakness nausea and vomiting seizures disorientation agitation delusions and visual and auditory hallucinations Benzodiazepine withdrawal is similar but less severe Cross dependence occurs among the barbiturates the benzodiazepines and alcohol Acute Toxicity Behavioral Alcohol like intoxication with impaired judgment and coordination Additive effects if combined with alcohol Physiological Respiratory depression Especially dangerous if combined with alcohol Patterns of Abuse Most abuse associated with oral use of legally manufactured products Two types of typical abusers Older adults using prescription drugs who develop tolerance and increase their dosage Younger people who obtain drugs to get high o may take high doses and or mix with alcohol Inhalants Examples of products that contain inhalable solvents gasoline glue paint lighter fluid spray cans nail polish correction fluid Effects similar to alcohol and other depressants Examples of Inhalants Gaseous Anesthetics Nitrous oxide ether Current and former medical anesthetics Nitrites Isoamyl isobutyl Locker room Rush poppers Volatile solvents Petroleum


View Full Document

Access the best Study Guides, Lecture Notes and Practice Exams

Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Depressants and Inhalants and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Depressants and Inhalants and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?