DREXEL PSY 310 - Chapter 1 (5 pages)

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Chapter 1



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Chapter 1

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Pages:
5
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
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Drug Use An Overview Talking About Drug Use Our concern about the use of a substance depends on Who is using it how much is being used and when where and why it is being used General Principles of Drug Use Use is not abuse Most users of any given substance do not use it in ways that can be defined as abuse or dependence Every drug has multiple effects Although a user might seek only one effect drugs work at multiple sites in the brain and other organs Amount matters Larger doses more frequent doses faster onset of effects can produce different effects compared to small doses User s history and expectations affect drug related effects An experienced user may experience different effects compared to an inexperienced user Expectations may make a drug effect more or less likely to occur Drugs are not good or bad Drugs are chemicals on a shelf that are inactive until they enter the body Blaming the substance ignores all the factors that may lead to abuse Important Terms Drug Any substance natural or artificial other than food that by its chemical nature alters structure or function in a living organism Illicit drug A drug that is unlawful to possess or use Deviant drug use Drug use that is not common within a social group and is disapproved of by the majority Drug misuse Use of drugs or chemicals in greater amounts than or for purposes other than those prescribed by a doctor Drug abuse Substance use in a manner an amount or in situations such that it causes social occupational psychological or physical problems Drug dependence A more precise term than addiction A state in which an individual uses a drug so frequently or consistently that it would be difficult for the person to stop May be physiological and or psychological Have Things Really Changed Drug use is not new Throughout history drugs have been used for Enhancing spiritual experiences Major economic roles Treatment for illnesses Developments in the past century Rise of legal pharmaceuticals Rise of the war on drugs Extent of Drug Use Not easy to get accurate and complete information on Number of drug users How much of an illicit drug is imported and sold Usage of legal drugs such as alcohol tobacco and prescription drugs Nevertheless we do get some information from survey questionnaires Benefits easy to use inexpensive efficient Drawbacks o Bias in student population e g dropouts not counted o Potential inaccuracy of self reports among both users and non users Populations of Users Wide range of rates and amounts of use Even within a substance using population This is true of all drugs of abuse This range of users has important implications for Prevention efforts Treatment efforts Law enforcement The nature of dependence Trends in Drug Use Survey Monitoring the Future Project MTF Gathers data from students 8th 12th grade and college Conducted annually for over 30 years Types of data collected Prevalence of drug use Perceived risk and availability of various drugs Shows trends over time Monitoring the Future Trends in Drug Use Survey National Survey on Drug Use and Health NSDUH Gathers data from U S households not just students Face to face interviews Ages 12 and above Conducted annually for over 30 years Types of data collected Prevalence of drug use Frequency of drug use Shows trends over time NSDUH National Surveys Data from MTF and NSDUH can be examined together Finding similar patterns in two different studies using different sampling techniques A stronger indication that these trends are real and reflect broad changes in American society over time Correlates of Drug Use Correlate A variable that is statistically related to another variable such as drug use Important Correlates are not causes Risk factors for adolescent drug use include Having friends who use drugs Engaging in antisocial activities Protective factors include Perception of strong sanctions against use Having parents as social support Gender Example Men use more drugs than women Race and ethnicity Example Whites are more likely to drink alcohol than African Americans Level of education Example College graduates are less likely to smoke tobacco than high school graduates Personality variables Example Impulsive individuals may use drugs at a higher rate Genetics Example Genetics may play a role in who will develop a substance use disorder Antecedents of Drug Use Antecedent a factor that occurs before an event such as the initiation of drug use Not necessarily causes of drug use Examples of antecedents Aggressiveness Conduct problems Poor academic performance Attachment to a drug using peer group Parental and community norms that support drug use Gateway Substances Gateway One of the first drugs used by a typical drug user Alcohol and tobacco are sometimes considered gateway drugs Gateway substances may not be the cause of future drug use Gateway substances are perhaps best thought of as Early indicators of a basic pattern of deviant behavior resulting from a variety of risk factors Motives for Drug Use There are several influences of drug use Identification with a deviant subculture Rebelliousness Fads and cultural trends Reinforcing properties of drugs Desire to experience an altered state Influences on Drug Use


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