DREXEL PSY 310 - Overview for Units 4 to 7- Module 2 (3 pages)

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Overview for Units 4 to 7- Module 2



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Overview for Units 4 to 7- Module 2

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3
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
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Overview for Units 4 to 7 Module 2 Alcohol Ch 9 Opiates Ch 10 Stimulants Ch 11 Nicotine and Caffeine Ch 12 Marijuana Ch 13 Hallucinogens Ch 14 In the beginning of the semester we mentioned that our course will be broken up into three sections what I also refer to as modules to get across the material more easily during the past three weeks we covered the first module looking at basic pharmacological principles now that we have reviewed the basic pharmacological principles in the first module to understand various drugs we will turn to specific drugs of abuse over the next four weeks in our second module we will conclude our course with the third module by looking at specific drugs that are used in the treatment of mental disorders now I would like to talk with you give you an overview for the specific drugs of abuse that we will cover in our second module Topics Covered for Each Drug History of Use Origin Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Dependence and Tolerance Prevention Treatment As you can see from this slide for each of the drugs we will cover its history of use and recent trends its source and origin its pharmaokinetics how the drug is handled by the body its pharmacodyncamics how the drug impacts on the body mostly in terms of neurotransmitter action the nature of physical and psychological dependence for each drug as well as its chronic long term effects the role of tolerance and sensitization for some drugs and finally the most promising models of prevention and treatment Estimated Economic Cost to Society Due to Substance Abuse and Addiction http www drugabuse gov pubs teaching Teaching6 Teaching html Drug abuse costs the United States economy hundreds of billions of dollars in increased health care costs crime and lost productivity The total costs of drug abuse and addiction due to use of tobacco alcohol and illegal drugs are estimated at 524 billion a year Illicit drug use alone accounts for 181 billion in health care productivity loss crime incarceration and drug enforcement What is Addiction Addiction is a Brain Disease Characterized by Compulsive behavior Continued abuse of drugs despite negative consequences Persistent changes in the brain s structure and function Decades of research have revealed addiction to be a disease that alters the brain We now know that while the initial decision to use drugs is voluntary drug addiction is a disease of the brain that compels a person to become singularly obsessed with obtaining and abusing drugs despite their many adverse health and life consequences We no longer believe that addiction comes about because of a moral failing or because of personality problems Addiction Involves Multiple Factors Research has also taught us that addiction is a complex disease influenced by a multitude of highly entangled factors No single factor determines whether someone will or will not become addicted to drugs Why Do People Abuse Drugs Drugs of abused engage motivation and pleasure pathways of the brain Why do drugs make people feel good or feel better because of what they do to their brain Drugs exert their effects largely on the motivation and pleasure pathways of the brain Research has shown that people generally take drugs to either feel good i e sensation seekers or anyone wanting to experiment with feeling high or different or to feel better i e self medicators or individuals who take drugs in an attempt to cope with difficult problems or situations including stress trauma and symptoms of mental disorders Dopamine Dopamine is a brain chemical involved in many different functions including movement motivation reward and addiction Nearly all drugs of abuse directly or indirectly increase dopamine in the pleasure and motivation pathways and in so doing alter the normal communication between neurons Circuits Involved in Drug Abuse and Addiction Research has identified a number of brain circuits that are affected by drug abuse and addiction The areas depicted contain the circuits that underlie feelings of reward learning and memory motivation and drive and inhibitory control Each of these brain areas and the behaviors they control must be considered when developing strategies to treat drug addiction Key PFC prefrontal cortex ACG anterior cingulate gyrus OFC orbitofrontal cortex SCC subcallosal cortex NAc nucleus accumbens VP ventral pallidum Hipp hippocampus Amyg amygdala Treating a Biobehavioral Disorder Must Go Beyond Just Fixing the Chemistry Addiction requires treatment that addresses its complexity Substance abuse treatment should address the whole person and can include medications behavioral therapies and ancillary support services


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