DREXEL PSY 310 - Chapter 9- Alcohol (8 pages)

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Chapter 9- Alcohol



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Chapter 9- Alcohol

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Pages:
8
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
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Chapter 9 Alcohol Fermentation Products Fermentation Production of alcohol from sugars through the action of yeasts Forms the basis of all alcoholic beverages Raw materials Fruit contains sugar and will ferment with the addition of yeast Cereal grains require malt to convert starch into sugar Yeast has a limited tolerance for alcohol When the concentration reaches 12 15 the yeast dies and fermentation ceases Beer Production process Made by adding barley malt to other cereal grains Hops are added with yeast to give beer its distinctive flavor Most beer sold in the United States is mass produced by the two largest brewers Imported beers and microbreweries are growing in popularity Types of Beer Type Ale Lager Most common type in U S Light beer Process Uses a top fermentation yeast Warm temperature and shorter fermentation Uses a type of yeast that settles to the bottom of the mash to ferment Cool temperature and slower fermentation Fermented longer at a cooler temperature More sugar is converted to alcohol Then water added Wine Production Made from fermented grapes Produced by both small and large wineries Most wines contain about 12 alcohol Factors in quality include Selection and cultivation of grapevines Good weather Timing of harvest Careful monitoring of fermentation and aging Varieties of Wine Generics vs varietals Determined by type of grapes and flavor Red vs white Sweet vs dry Sparkling wines Fortified wines Alcohol content near 20 percent Distilled Products Distillation Evaporation and condensing of alcohol vapors to produce beverages with higher alcohol content Process perhaps discovered in Arabia around AD 800 Introduced into Europe in about the 10th century Proof A measure of a beverage s alcohol content Twice the percentage of alcohol by weight 90 proof whiskey is 45 percent alcohol Distilled Spirits Grain neutral spirits Clear tasteless nearly pure alcohol 190 proof produced by distillation Sold as Everclear to consumers and used in research Used to make various beverages o Gin distillate filtered through juniper berries and then diluted with water o Vodka mixture of grain neutral spirits and water Contains relatively few congeners Other alcohols and oils contained in alcoholic beverages Whiskey Distillate of fermented grain Distilled at a lower proof 160 and so contains more congeners and some flavor from the grain Usually aged for at least two years Types of whiskey include Rye whiskey Corn whiskey bourbon Blended whiskey Early U S Views on Alcohol Use Before American Revolution Most people drank more alcohol compared with water Drunkenness was viewed as misuse of positive product After American Revolution Alcohol itself viewed as the cause of serious problems Alcohol was first psychoactive substance to become demonized in American culture Temperance Movement Benjamin Rush Wrote pamphlet o An Inquiry into the Effects of Ardent Spirits on the Mind and Body Heavy drinking health problems Alcohol use damages morality Alcohol addiction a disease Temperance societies Initially promoted abstinence from distilled spirits only Later promoted total abstinence Became fashionable to take the pledge Prohibition States began passing prohibition laws in 1851 By 1917 64 of Americans lived in dry territory Laws reflected issues of class ethnicity religion immigration Federal prohibition 18th Amendment 1919 banned the sale of alcohol People still drank illegally in speakeasies and private clubs and legally through purchase of patent medicines Enforcement was challenging and expensive Outcomes of Prohibition included Organized crime became more organized and profitable Alcohol dependence and alcohol related deaths declined Repealed by the 21st Amendment 1933 Reasons for the repeal o Alcohol taxes had been a major source of revenue o Concerns that widespread disrespect for Prohibition laws encouraged a general sense of lawlessness Outcomes of repeal included o Alcohol per capita sales and consumption increased o Returned to pre Prohibition levels after World War II Regulation and Taxation Regulation after 1933 Some states remained dry initially o but most allowed beer sales Mississippi was the last dry state o allowed alcohol purchase and consumption in 1966 In 1970s drinking ages were lowered to 18 19 in 30 states o but raised again to 21 following safety concerns Taxation Federal and state taxes and licensing fees about half the price of an alcoholic beverage When taxes go up consumption goes down o but not dramatically Alcohol Consumption Patterns Consumption patterns are influenced by cultural factors Trends in U S alcohol consumption Similar to other drugs alcohol use peaked in 1981 and then declined American consumption per person per year o Beer 27 gallons or over 1 gallon of alcohol o Spirits 0 75 gallon of alcohol o Wine 0 33 gallon of alcohol Regional differences in the U S One third of U S population abstain Half the alcohol is consumed by 10 of the drinkers Stress index Drinking rates higher in states where people experience a great deal of social stress and tension Drinking norms Drinking rates higher in states where people tend to approve of the use of alcohol to relieve stress U S Alcohol Consumption Gender differences Males more likely to drink than females Males more likely to drink more Drinking among college students College students drink more than their nonstudent peers Many campuses have banned sale and advertising of alcohol Many fraternities have banned keg parties Despite this alcohol use has not changed significantly In fact there has been a slight increase in binge drinking and driving after drinking What is One Drink Standard drink has about 0 5 ounces of pure alcohol 12 ounces of beer 4 ounces of wine 1 ounce of 100 proof spirits Pharmacology Absorption Most absorbed in the small intestine o Some absorbed in the stomach Slower if there is food or water in the stomach Faster in the presence of carbonated beverages Distribution Blood alcohol concentration BAC o measure of the concentration of alcohol in blood expressed as a percentage in terms of grams per 100 ml Alcohol is distributed throughout body fluids but not fatty tissues Thus a lean person will have a lower BAC than an fatter person of the same weight Metabolism Liver metabolizes about 0 25 ounces of alcohol per hour If rate of intake rate of metabolism BAC is stable If rate of intake exceeds rate of metabolism BAC increases About 90 percent is metabolized in the liver About 2 percent of alcohol


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