DREXEL PSY 310 - Chapter 9- Alcohol (8 pages)

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Chapter 9- Alcohol



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Chapter 9- Alcohol

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Pages:
8
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior

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Chapter 9 Alcohol Fermentation Products Fermentation Production of alcohol from sugars through the action of yeasts Forms the basis of all alcoholic beverages Raw materials Fruit contains sugar and will ferment with the addition of yeast Cereal grains require malt to convert starch into sugar Yeast has a limited tolerance for alcohol When the concentration reaches 12 15 the yeast dies and fermentation ceases Beer Production process Made by adding barley malt to other cereal grains Hops are added with yeast to give beer its distinctive flavor Most beer sold in the United States is mass produced by the two largest brewers Imported beers and microbreweries are growing in popularity Types of Beer Type Ale Lager Most common type in U S Light beer Process Uses a top fermentation yeast Warm temperature and shorter fermentation Uses a type of yeast that settles to the bottom of the mash to ferment Cool temperature and slower fermentation Fermented longer at a cooler temperature More sugar is converted to alcohol Then water added Wine Production Made from fermented grapes Produced by both small and large wineries Most wines contain about 12 alcohol Factors in quality include Selection and cultivation of grapevines Good weather Timing of harvest Careful monitoring of fermentation and aging Varieties of Wine Generics vs varietals Determined by type of grapes and flavor Red vs white Sweet vs dry Sparkling wines Fortified wines Alcohol content near 20 percent Distilled Products Distillation Evaporation and condensing of alcohol vapors to produce beverages with higher alcohol content Process perhaps discovered in Arabia around AD 800 Introduced into Europe in about the 10th century Proof A measure of a beverage s alcohol content Twice the percentage of alcohol by weight 90 proof whiskey is 45 percent alcohol Distilled Spirits Grain neutral spirits Clear tasteless nearly pure alcohol 190 proof produced by distillation Sold as Everclear to consumers and used in research Used to



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