DREXEL PSY 310 - Stimulants (6 pages)

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Stimulants



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Stimulants

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Pages:
6
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior

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Stimulants Stimulants are substances that can keep a person going mentally and physically Restricted stimulants Examples cocaine and amphetamine Readily available stimulants Examples caffeine and nicotine Cocaine History Coca a bush that grows in the Andes and produces cocaine Harvested for thousands of years and actively cultivated for over 800 years The coca leaf was an important part of Inca culture Used in religious ceremonies and as currency Some natives of the Andes still chew coca leaves to reduce fatigue and increase productivity Cocaine was in use in Europe by the 19th century Coca wine Developed by Angelo Mariani Used coca leaf extract in many other products including lozenges and tea Cocaine was also used in the United States in early versions of Coca Cola and in many patent medicines Cocaine was isolated from the plant before 1860 Processing 500 kilograms of coca leaves yields 1 kilogram of cocaine Early psychiatric uses Sigmund Freud studied use of cocaine as a treatment for depression and morphine dependence Later opposed use of the drug after nursing a friend through cocaine psychosis Early Legal Controls on Cocain Press and politicians made unsubstantiated claims about cocaine use among southern blacks Widespread use Associated with increased violent crime 46 states passed laws to regulate cocaine between 1887 and 1914 Negative publicity about cocaine influenced the passage of the 1914 Harrison Act Forms of Cocaine Coca paste Crude extract created during the manufacture of cocaine In South America often mixed with tobacco and smoked Cocaine hydrochloride Most common form of pure cocaine Stable water soluble salt Often insufflated Freebase Extraction of the cocaine base with a solvent ether Can be heated and the vapors inhaled Crack cocaine Lumps of cocaine base prepared by mixing cocaine with water and baking soda Can be heated and the vapors inhaled Contemporary Legal Controls Cocaine use increased in the late 1960s Prior to 1985 the major form of



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