DREXEL PSY 310 - Stimulants (6 pages)

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Stimulants



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Stimulants

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Pages:
6
School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
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Stimulants Stimulants are substances that can keep a person going mentally and physically Restricted stimulants Examples cocaine and amphetamine Readily available stimulants Examples caffeine and nicotine Cocaine History Coca a bush that grows in the Andes and produces cocaine Harvested for thousands of years and actively cultivated for over 800 years The coca leaf was an important part of Inca culture Used in religious ceremonies and as currency Some natives of the Andes still chew coca leaves to reduce fatigue and increase productivity Cocaine was in use in Europe by the 19th century Coca wine Developed by Angelo Mariani Used coca leaf extract in many other products including lozenges and tea Cocaine was also used in the United States in early versions of Coca Cola and in many patent medicines Cocaine was isolated from the plant before 1860 Processing 500 kilograms of coca leaves yields 1 kilogram of cocaine Early psychiatric uses Sigmund Freud studied use of cocaine as a treatment for depression and morphine dependence Later opposed use of the drug after nursing a friend through cocaine psychosis Early Legal Controls on Cocain Press and politicians made unsubstantiated claims about cocaine use among southern blacks Widespread use Associated with increased violent crime 46 states passed laws to regulate cocaine between 1887 and 1914 Negative publicity about cocaine influenced the passage of the 1914 Harrison Act Forms of Cocaine Coca paste Crude extract created during the manufacture of cocaine In South America often mixed with tobacco and smoked Cocaine hydrochloride Most common form of pure cocaine Stable water soluble salt Often insufflated Freebase Extraction of the cocaine base with a solvent ether Can be heated and the vapors inhaled Crack cocaine Lumps of cocaine base prepared by mixing cocaine with water and baking soda Can be heated and the vapors inhaled Contemporary Legal Controls Cocaine use increased in the late 1960s Prior to 1985 the major form of the drug available was cocaine hydrochloride Most often insufflated Usually sold in bulk amounts that were relatively expensive Cocaine use was associated with status wealth and fame By the mid 1980s crack became available Relatively inexpensive 5 to 10 a hit Smoked cocaine use was associated with poor black Americans Media and politicians focused on crack use among urban black Americans Associated with violence and dependency Anti Drug Abuse Acts of 1986 and 1988 Penalties for sale of crack cocaine significantly more severe compared with powder cocaine Tougher penalties for first time users of crack U S Sentencing Commission concerns about policy Penalties severity disproportionately impacted blacks Exaggerated relative harmfulness of crack Federal Cocaine Offenders by race Mechanism of Action Cocaine s mechanism of action is complex Cocaine blocks reuptake of dopamine serotonin and norepinephrine GABA and glutamate have also been implicated Absorption and Onset of Effects Chewing or sucking coca leaves Slow absorption and onset of effects Insufflation Snorting Absorbed through nasal mucous membranes Rapid absorption and onset of effects Intravenous injection Rapid and brief effects Smoked Rapid and brief effects Cocaine Elimination Cocaine is metabolized by enzymes in the blood and liver Half life of about one hour Major metabolites have a half life of eight hours These are detected by urine drug screens Beneficial Uses Local anesthesia Used medically since 1884 Early applications were eye surgery and dentistry Synthesized drugs with few CNS effects have largely replaced cocaine Cocaine remains in use for surgery in the nasal laryngeal and esophageal regions Concerns Acute Toxicity No evidence that occasional use of small amounts is detrimental to health Potential toxicity increases with larger doses Profound CNS stimulation o which can lead to respiratory or cardiac arrest Illicit cocaine is often adulterated Adulterants may be more toxic than the drug Chronic Toxicity Binge use Drug is taken repeatedly and at increasingly high doses Risks of binge use Increasing irritability restlessness paranoia Can result in paranoid psychosis Most seem to recover once the drug leaves the system Dependence Potential Cocaine dependence occurs in some users Animal and human studies have shown that cocaine is a powerfully reinforcing drug Example Animals will readily self administer the drug by lever pressing After binge use some people experience withdrawal symptoms Cocaine craving irritability anxiety depressed mood increased appetite fatigue Reproductive Effects Crack Baby phenomenon Media reports overstated the expected long term effects of cocaine exposure Recent studies indicate no consistent associations between cocaine exposure and several developmental measures Cocaine use during pregnancy Increased risk of miscarriage and torn placenta Supplies of Illicit Cocaine Readily available in all major U S cities Price and purity have remained stable for the past decade Most illicit cocaine in the U S comes from Peru Bolivia and Columbia Current Patterns of Use NSDUH and MTF surveys indicate Less than 2 percent of adults currently use cocaine 2010 data Down from a peak of 7 to 9 percent in the 1980s In general usage rates of cocaine and amphetamine tend to cycle in opposition to each other When cocaine use decreases amphetamine use may increase Amphetamines History The Chinese used a medicinal tea made from ma huang Ephedra Active ingredient is ephedrine Stimulates the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system o Sympathomimetic drug Used to treat asthma Amphetamine Synthesized chemical similar to ephedrine Patented in 1932 Early medical uses Asthma Narcolepsy Hyperactivity in children Appetite suppressant Stimulant Wartime uses Increased efficiency and reduced fatigue drug WWII 1960s speed scene Many IV drug users used amphetamines either alone or in combination with heroin speedball Most street amphetamines came from prescriptions Amphetamines became more tightly controlled leading to Increased cocaine use Increased illicit manufacture of methamphetamine The Return of Methamphetamine Illicit manufacture of methamphetamine is dangerous and associated with toxic fumes and residue The drug often contains impurities that may be toxic Methamphetamine abuse rose in the Western and Midwestern United States throughout the 1990s Increases in Eastern U S cities were relatively modest Cocaine remained the stimulant of choice


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