DREXEL PSY 310 - Top Ten Discoveries in Psychopharmacology (3 pages)

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Top Ten Discoveries in Psychopharmacology



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Top Ten Discoveries in Psychopharmacology

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School:
Drexel University
Course:
Psy 310 - Drugs & Human Behavior
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Top Ten Discoveries in Psychopharmacology Abused Substances and Psychotherapeutic Drugs Each discovery created a shift in paradigm could not be explained by current models paradigms and opened the door to a new line of study by opening the door to new paradigms 5 substance and abuse 5 psychotherapeutic drugs Drug Craving Can Be Learned When confronted with cues that in the past have been paired with the drug people and nonhuman animals dependent on drugs display evidence of craving intense urge to take drug and heightened drug withdrawal symptoms Opened up the study of Role of learning and experience in drug abuse Role of drug anticipatory responses in drug abuse tolerance and dependence Role of dopamine and other neurotransmitters in drug craving and withdrawal Shephard Siegel 1985 Abused Drugs Have Reinforcing Properties Self Administration A variety of abused drugs have reinforcing effects i e animals will press a lever in order to receive an injection of drug into the blood or into the brain drug induced self administration behavior Opened up the study of Predictability of abuse potential of a drug in humans through its ability to produce selfadministration reinforcing effects The role of specific neurotransmitters dopamine and anatomical substrates nucleus accumbens in the self administration reinforcing effects of abused drugs Weeks 1962 Abused Drugs Serve as Discriminative Stimuli Animals can learn to press a lever in the presence of a specific abused drug e g when heroin acts as the reinforced cue and withhold pressing the lever in a non drugged state or in the presence of a different drug state e g in the presence of amphetamine as the non reinforced cue Opened up the study of Comparing drugs with similar and dissimilar subjective effects in studies of cross tolerance among abused and non abused drugs Identifying and examining the neurochemical basis among similar and dissimilar drugs with abuse potential Alcohol Dependence Can Be Treated With Naltrexone or Disulfiram Pharmacological treatment is effective in alcohol dependent individuals by decreasing alcohol consumption reducing craving maintaining abstinence or preventing relapse Opened up the study of Comprehensive integrated approach to alcohol abuse In most cases medications should be used to augment psychosocial therapies Treatment for alcohol abuse dependence should include both behavioral psychosocial approaches and the use of various medications Management of acute alcohol withdrawal or detoxification by either reducing glutamate activity or increasing GABA activity Pharmacotherapies to help treat comorbid psychological disorders anxiety depression insomnia w alcohol abuse Opioids Mimic the Action of our Normal Biological Environment i e Endorphins Morphine and morphine like drugs belong to the class of drugs called opioids they interact w opioid receptors in the brain Opioids are agonists at highly specific receptor sites and the analgesic potency of the agonist correlates w the affinity of the agonist for the opioid receptor Opened up the study of Genes that encode the different opioid receptors Classification of different kinds of opioid analgesics based on their receptor affinity Tolerance dependence and rebound withdrawal symptoms opioid drugs incluing morphine Study of pharmacotherapy e g methadone of opioid dependence Chorpromazine Thorazine First Antipsychotic Discovered by French Researchers CPZ seemed to act on psychotic process did not produce sedation or loss of consciousness made pts more indifferent to less anxious to upcoming surgery more reactive more interactive Opened up the study of Community mental health treatment where outpt programs were set up to treat pts closer to home in a more natural environment at less cost CPZ changed the fabric of mental health treatment thousands of pts were freed from long term hospitalization Alternative first generation antipsychotics e g haloperidol haldol second generation atypical antipsychotics e g clozaril clozapine Research into the serious side effects of chronic antipsychotic use on involuntary motor movements tardive dyskinesias Neurotransmitter dopamine basis of antipsychotic effects Pierre Deniker Henri Leborit and Jean Delay 1952 Australian Psychiatrist Introduces Lithium to Treat Manic Depression Bipolar Disorder In the 1960s Li gained widespread acceptance for treatment of mania improvement in manic symptoms w little or no effect on unipolar depression Opened up the study of Other mood stabilizing therapeutic agents for bipolar that do not require blood level monitoring e g valproic acid depakote carbamezapine tegretol lamotrigine lamictal Research into other uses for mood stabilizers such as treatment of neuropathic pain anxiety disorders BPD and aggression Research into the combination of pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic psychosocial treatments in bipolar and other disorders John Cade 1949 Amphetamine First Report That Hyperactivity Can Be Reduced in Children Amphetamine elevates mood induces euphoria increases alertness reduces fatigue reduces boredom and improves task performance Methylphenidate an amphetamine that augments the synaptic action of DA and NE in the nucleus accumbens accounts for nearly 90 of medications given to children w ADHD Opened up the study of Research into psychostimulants as a treatment for aggressive and conduct disorders even in the absence of ADHD Research into alternative medications for ADHD e g antidepressants dopamine agonists NE reuptake inhibitors Research into the neurobiology of ADHD Studies of early intervention multifaceted combined therapies in ADHD including medication psychological therapy psychoeductation interactive therapy w parents and teachers Development of best practice guidelines for best practice management of ADHD Bradley 1937 Fluoxetine Prozac Introduced as Antidepressant Treatment for Depression Fluoxetine and several other antidepressants introduced in fairly rapid succession sertraline Zoloft paroxetine Paxil fluvoxamine Luvox and most recently citalopram Celexa became the first line treatment choice in major depressive disoder collectively referred to as serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs Also became treatment of choice in anxiety disorders Opened up the study of Pathophysiology of depression involving monoamine neurotransmitter hypotheses Study of cellular processes in brain responsible for protective effects of SSRIs Study of therapeutic improvements e g therapy resistant


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