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EMU BIO 105 - Cell Division : Meiosis

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Immortal Cells Assignment due Today!Genetic Basis of CancerOncogenesTumor SuppressorsP53Controlling Cell GrowthRegulating the Cell CycleCell Cycle check pointsBIO 105 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last LectureImmortal Cells Assignment due Today!Genetic Basis of CancerOncogenesTumor SuppressorsP53Controlling Cell Growth Regulating the Cell CycleCell Cycle check pointsOutline of Current Lecture I. Sexual Reproductiona. GametesII. Meiosis – A unique processa. Prophase I (3)b. Metaphase I (1)c. Anaphase I (1)d. Telophase (3)III. Meiosis IIa. Prophase II b. Metaphase IIc. Anaphase IId. Telophase IIIV. Creating Genetic DiversityV. Genetic Alterations VI. On MutationsCurrent LectureI. Cell Division is required for lifea. Growth b. Homeostasisc. ReproductionsII. Sexual Reproduction in Eukaryotesa. Requires gametesThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.b. Gametes (sex cells)i. Female gonad: eggii. Male gonad: spermIII. Humans (n=23)a. Somatic (body) cellsi. Diploid (2n =2x23)ii. 46 Chromosomesb. Gametes (sex) Cellsi. Haploid (n=1x23)ii. 23 ChromosomesIV. Meiosis = Reduction Divisiona. Creates gametes through cell divisionb. Chromosomes # Reduced by halfi. Diploid Cells -> Haploid GametesV. Meiosis Ia. Interphasei. Identical to mitosis1. G1 – Growth2. S – DNA Synthesis – duplication3. G2 – Growth, Preparation for cell divisionb. 3 Unique Aspects of Meiosisi. Crossing Over (Prophase I)ii. Independent Assortment (Metaphase I, II)iii. Separating Homologous chromosomes (anaphase 1)c. Prophase Ii. Genetic Recombination 1. Creates Varietyii. Synapse1. Homologous Chromosomes come togetheriii. Crossing Over1. Non sister chromatids swap segments of DNA at Chiasma d. Metaphase Ii. Independent assortment1. Random Alignment with Chromosomese. Anaphase Ii. Separation of Homologous Chromosomes1. Sister chromatids are connected!f. Telophase Ii. Cells are now Haploidg. Cytokinesis Ih. Interphasei. No S phase1. No duplicating ChromosomesVI. Meiosis IIa. Prophase IIi. Formation of Spindleii. Condensation of Chromosomes 1. Why aren’t they identical anymore?iii. (Sometimes) Nuclear Envelope Breakdownb. Metaphase IIi. Chromosomes line up on Metaphase platec. Anaphase IIi. Sister Chromatids sparated. Telophase IIi. Haploid daughter cells are formedVII. Random Fertilization Creates Varietya. Each Gamete is genetically uniqueb. Fertilize randomlyVIII. Genetic Alterations During Meiosisa. Nondisjunction: chromosomes do not separate normallyb. Abnormal number of chromosomes: Aneuploidyi. Down Syndrome: Trisomy (3 copies of chromosome 21)IX. Nondisjunction of Sex Chromosomes a. XXY – Klinefeter Syndrome (male)b. XYY – Normal Malec. XXX – Normal Femaled. X (0) – Turner Syndrome (female)X. Review Figures a. 8.10b. 8.8bc. 11.15bd. 11.15ae. 8.4f. 8.7bg.


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