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Purdue PSY 12000 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSY 120 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 7In class the professor told us the study guide on Blackboard was made based off of theexam.The following is the study guide provided by our professor on Blackboard with informationfrom our text book added to enhance the study guide.Exam 1 – Study Guide Chapter 1 1. What are the three goals of psychological science? a. Describe behavior b. Predict behaviorc. Explain behavior2. What are the four attitudes that encompass the core of the scientific approach? a. Critical thinkingb. Curiosityc. Skepticismd. Objectivity3. Structuralism a. Wilhelm Wundt’s approach to discovering the basic elements or structures of mental processes in order to understand them4. Functionalisma. William James’s approach to mental processes which places emphasis of the minds functions and purpose, and an individual’s behavior when adapting to environments 5. Be able to identify the seven contemporary approaches to psychology a. Biological approach i Focuses on the body especially brain and nervous systemb. Behavioral approach i Focuses on observable behavioral responses and their determinantsc. Psychodynamic Approach i Focuses on unconscious thought, the conflict between biological drives and society’s demand, and early childhood family experiences.d. Humanistic Approach i Focuses on a person’s positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose one’s destiny.e. Cognitive Approach i Focuses on the mental processes involved in knowing; how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problemsf. Evolutionary Approach i Focuses on evolutionary ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selectiong. Sociocultural Approach i Focuses on the influences of social and cultural environments on behavior6. What are the five steps of the scientific method? 1. Observing some phenomenon2. Formulation hypotheses and predictions3. Testing through empirical research4. Drawing conclusions5. Evaluating conclusions7. Operational definition a. It provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measured and observed in a particular study which eliminates the “fuzziness” the might creep into thinking about a problem8. Correlational research a. Goal- to discover relationships between variables and how they change together, but correlation does not equal causation. The degree of the relationship between two variables is the correlation coefficient.b. Strength- The correlation coefficient ranges from -1 to +1. The closer it is to 0 the likelihood that there is a relationship decreases, with +1 it is more likely to that there is a strong relationship between the variables.c. Direction- the + and – signs indicated the direction of relation between variables. If the number is negative that when one variable rise the other will fall.If the number is positive, when one number rises the other will rise as well. 9. Experiments a. Independent variable i The variable the experimenter changes to see what its effects areb. Dependent variable i The variable that depends on the independent variable that changes and the experimenter is studying.c. Experimenter biasi When the experimenter’s expectations influence the outcome of the research.d. Random assignment i Participants are assigned to groups randomly by chance. This reduces the likelihood of the experiment be effected by preexisting conditionse. Random selection i A method that allows researchers to draw a random group of participants from a larger population.f. Internal validity i Degree to which changes in the independent variable are due to the manipulation of the independent variable.g. External validity i Determining how or if the experiment’s result can apply to the real worldh. Reliability i The consistency of research or testChapter 2 1. What are the unique factors of each characteristic of the nervous system? i Complexity- Billions of cells work on harmony to all us to dance, sing, write, talk and think.ii Integration- The brain pulls information like sight, sound, smell, taste, and hearing and integrates them, puts them together. The brain and nervous system are made up of many levels and is integrated across these levels and can easily relay information.iii Adaptability- Our brain and nervous system work together to adapt. Cell structures in the brain regions are not fixed and can shift around when necessary.Plasticity is the brain’s capacity to change.iv Electrochemical Transmissions- The brain and nervous system function as an information processing system powered by electrical impulses and chemical reactions communicating from jumping to neuron to neuron.2. What are the divisions of the nervous system and what is each division responsible for? a. Central nervous system(CNS)- Made of the spinal cord and brain and is where 99% of our nerve cells are locatedb. Peripheral nervous system(PNS)- Is the network of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body. The PNS brings information to and from the brain and spinal cord and to carry out commands of the CNS to execute nuscular and glandular activities.i. somatic nervous system – Contains sensory nerves which convey information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about conditions such as pain and temperature and motor nerves (which tells the muscles whatto do).ii. autonomic nervous system- Carries messages to and from the body’s internal organs, monitoring processes like breathing heart rate and digestion. 1. sympathetic nervous system- The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to mobilize it for action and thus is involved in the experience of stress 2. parasympathetic nervous system- The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body 3. What are the different parts of the neuron and what is the function of each? a. What is a neuron?i. One of two types of cells in the nervous system; Neurons are the nerve cells that handle the information processing.b. Cell body – Part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenancec. Dendrites – Treelike fibers projecting from a neuron which receive information and orient it toward the neuron’s cell bodyd. Nucleus- contains the genetic material in the form of chromosomes e. Axon- The part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body and toward other cells f. Myelin


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